The human microbiota is believed to influence health. Microbiome dysbiosis may be linked to neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s disease (HD). We report the ability of a probiotic bacterial strain in reversing neurodegeneration phenotypes. We show that Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus HA-114 is neuroprotective in C. elegans models of ALS and HD. Our results show that neuroprotection from L. rhamnosus HA-114 is unique from other L. rhamnosus strains, and resides in its fatty acid content. Neuroprotection by L. rhamnosus HA-114 requires acdh-1/ACADSB, kat-1/ACAT1 and elo-6/ELOVL3/6, which are key fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial β-oxidation genes. Moreover, L. rhamnosus HA-114 delayed disease onset and suppressed motor neuron degeneration in an aggressive mouse model of ALS. Our data suggest that disrupted lipid metabolism contributes to neurodegeneration and that dietary intervention with L. rhamnosus HA-114 restores lipid homeostasis and energy balance through mitochondrial β-oxidation. L. rhamnosus HA-114 is suitable for human consumption opening the possibility of modifying disease progression by dietary intervention.