Manufacturing industries of the future are poised for more disruptive changes that are impacted by sustainability issues, consumer attitudes and behaviors, digitization, 3D printing, emerging automation technologies, etc. These changes in manufacturing will also signal rippling innovations and adaptations in other businesses and industries due to their ties to the manufacturing industries. A significant trend of transforming and expanding the manufacturing sector to facilitate MaaS fulfillment has been observed .
(1) Mass customization and open manufacturing in a circular economy
At the frontend of manufacturing, firms are confronted with challenges for satisfying individual customer needs while managing product variety and developing products more efficiently than their competitors . The extent of market-of-one has been foreseen as a potential driving force for the next transformation of the global economy , leading to a paradigm shift from traditional mass production to mass customization and personalization . Large variety in the market and product domain propagating to the manufacturing domain implies higher variations of production processes, causing complex technology portfolio  and restorative supply chain operations in a circular economy . As a result, future manufacturing needs to utilize information sharing to cooperate with a peer of suppliers through a series of outsourced fabrications to finish the final products within the lead time . Instead of owning excess production capacities to hedge against demand fluctuation, companies are adopting an open business model  by implementing manufacturing capabilities and resources as a scalable and changeable production network to achieve quick response and adjust capacities  through an agile enterprise structure with extensive capability arsenal . The open business model allows for creation of new complementary links throughout a value chain, which explicitly arranges the stakeholders along with positions of value creation, delivery and capturing . This openness in manufacturing enables mass cooperation of manufacturers, which leads to a highly interactive manufacturing network. This network relies on the cooperative collaboration mechanism, which eventually empowers easy installation of new technologies and scaling up of manufacturing capabilities.
(2) Crowdsourced manufacturing
Crowdsourcing has emerged as a promising means of open business operations by transcending organizational boundaries to leverage resources and capabilities across distributed stakeholders . Different from the conventional strategy of outsourcing in supply chain management that emphasizes how to delegate a task to a designated agent, crowdsourcing utilizes an open call to a crowd for maximally exploiting the external resources . Among many perspectives of crowdsourcing, we emphasize future manufacturing from a cyber platform-driven perspective in order to peel out the coordinating and negotiating responsibilities from the crowdsourcer while distilling embedding an open manufacturing business model as the foundation of product innovation and development. The crowdsourcing cyber platform facilitates a manufacturer to explore external knowledge and resource by coordinating the activities of design and manufacturing among the stakeholders through a collaborative manufacturing fulfillment network.
The impacts of crowdsourced manufacturing on potential industrial and societal benefits are profound. The cutting-edge information and communications technologies (ICT) and industry trends empower manufacturing to be fulfilled over a crowdsourcing cyber platform to transcend the partners’ borders extensively and build up information exchanging networks. Integration of smart sensors and the networked manufacturing systems equips firms with a cyber-physical-human environment, where a synergy of Internet of Things (IoTs), big data analysis, and machine intelligence with legacy manufacturing technologies such as computer integrated manufacturing systems (CIMS), supply chain management (SCM) and production logistics has stimulated a gigantic manufacturing technology advancement for future manufacturing. The ultimate goal is to achieve competitiveness in collaboration across multiple entities towards an enterprise with an open yet virtual architecture in line with Industry 4.0  that is characterized as decentralization and digitalization .
(3) Manufacturing as a service
Future cyber manufacturing is equipped with ubiquitous connectivity in the manufacturing environment, allowing collection of significant volumes of dispersed information to support distributed decision making to fulfill manufacturing tasks . The new open manufacturing capabilities enabled by crowdsourcing platform will create opportunities for transforming and expanding the manufacturing sector by developing intelligent cognitive assistants to perform as decision support systems to facilitate the fulfillment of MaaS . The compelling need for accommodating a dynamic and collaborative network of manufacturing services has a broader implication for a service-oriented paradigm to be deployed as X-as-a-service and extended to the entire manufacturing regime to act as service manufacturing . Another implication is dedicated to social manufacturing  that aims to take advantage of the interactive relationships among the manufacturer crowds to foster a manufacturing service network as an autonomous organizing process. The trend of cloud-based design and manufacturing offers a framework of connecting smart entities across a population of companies, thus enabling a demand-capacity matching mechanism to serve collaborative product realization . Crowdsourced manufacturing enables fulfillment of MaaS through a cyber platform based on cloud-based design and manufacturing, which is organized as a dynamic resource sharing mechanism among the manufacturer crowds while engaging more manufacturer population in the MaaS network .
The emerging cyber-physical-human production systems will provoke changes in many ways for future manufacturing concerning MaaS fulfillment in the factory of the future. Leading experts expect less basic, repetitive work but more ambitious tasks in collaboration with the crowdsourcing platform, and thus, the factory of the future will not be deserted, but organized as a network of crowdsourcing platform-driven manufacturing services . It is conceived that the central theme of crowdsourced manufacturing lies in the new manufacturing capabilities empowered by the crowdsourcing cyber platform that performs as intelligent cognitive assistants to engage a large population of manufacturer crowds in an extended MaaS network.
This paper is motivated towards a deeper basic understanding of cyber platform-driven MaaS for advancing societal needs in the manufacturing industries. To examine the key methods and techniques of developing crowdsourced manufacturing platforms as computational tools, the paper reviews the fundamental issues and prevailing methods and techniques that have the potential for increasing the access of entrepreneurs to product-business open innovation and manufacturing services, while enabling manufacturers to offer their services more widely and allow mass customization of products and processes. A holistic framework of crowdsourced manufacturing for MaaS is outlined in the next section. Sections 3–6 review the common consensus and state-of-the-art techniques regarding such fundamental issues as model-based collaborative crowdsourcing fulfillment, population dynamics modeling of manufacturer crowds, predictive learning for adaptive production planning and control, and optimal crowdsourcing contracting with dynamic task allocation. A case example of crowdsourced orthodontics with 3D printing is briefed in Sect. 7 to illustrate the promise of crowdsourcing for MaaS. The paper concludes in Sect. 8 with outlook for future research opportunities.