Background: Osteoarticular traumas are particularly dangerous among arterial traumas, those associated with the popliteal artery are associated with a high amputation rate. Despite representing a minority of arterial traumas, with an incidence that considerably varies by population and geographic location, traumatic lesions of the popliteal artery are a challenge. This study aimed to verify the impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on arterial trauma damage and outcome.
Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from the emergency and operating rooms’ electronic medical reports at our Institution between 1 January 2005 and 1 May 2018 of all osteoarticular and vascular associated lesion. 41 pts presented with lower limb arterial trauma (43.2%), and popliteal artery lesions occurred in 11 (26.8%). 11 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. In addition, the lesion mechanism was dislocation by high-velocity trauma in 9 cases and by low-velocity trauma in 3. All 7 males (63.6%) were affected by high-velocity trauma, and 2 of the 3 females by low-velocity trauma. Only one patient had an isolated popliteal artery lesion associated with fractures in the leg or in contralateral limb. Patients with low-velocity traumas were older than 54 years while those with high-velocity were aged from 22 to 71 years.
Results: The lesion mechanism was dislocation due to high-velocity trauma in eight patients and due to low-velocity trauma in three. In 10/11 patients (90.9%). revascularization was performed after osteoarticular stabilization. after reduction of the dislocation or fracture. Intraoperative angiography was selectively used. Two patients required above-knee amputation after the procedure: one due to infection of the surgical access and the other due to severe soft tissue injury. One patient died during hospitalization due to trauma-related complications and comorbidities.
Conclusions: High-velocity traumas, and low-velocity traumas with a body mass index >35kg/m2 with knee lesions are associated with popliteal artery lesion. Revascularization success is not associated with high or low velocity traumas.