Background: Single-layer appositional closures are preferred to inverting or everting patterns, as submucosal apposition has been shown to promote primary healing of the intestinal wall, whereas inverted or everted closures require second-intention healing and can increase the risk of luminal stenosis or anastomosis site leakage. There are different suture patterns available, but relatively few studies comparing these aspects have been published.
The aim of this study was to compare two suture techniques for end-to-end anastomosis of the canine intestine (jejunum and colon): handsewn intestinal anastomosis by appositional simple continuous suture and inverting Cushing suture. The objectives of this study were to investigate 1.) whether the type of suture influences the specific effort to which the anastomosis site is submitted to, 2.) whether the anastomosis technique influences the diameter of the intestinal lumen and 3.) survival and complication rates in canine clinical cases undergoing end-to-end anastomoses.
Results: The equilibrium angle for implanting the sutures in an anastomosis is 35°, aspect completely fulfilled by the simple continuous suture. The efforts to which sutures are submitted to in anastomoses are minimal for the Cushing suture. The difference in size of the anastomoses’ lumen between simple continuous suture and the Cushing suture are minimal, without being statistically relevant. The differences between the lumen of the anastomoses performed using PDS and those performed using PGA are not statistically relevant.
The retrospective analysis of the outcome for 676 dogs (clinical cases) that underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis reveals that the dehiscence rate was 1.48%, out of which 1.18% following simple continuous anastomoses, and 0.3% following Cushing anastomoses. Narrowing of the intestinal lumen due to anastomotic healing was not registered.
Conclusions: Use of the Cushing suture should be considered for performing an end-to-end intestinal anastomosis, although more studies are required to determine if there are any clinically significant differences between the sutures investigated in this study.