Background: Reconstruction of coracoclavicular (CC) ligament has become a fundamental surgical method for acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation. Finding accurate location of bone tunnel is a key step in reconstruction of CC ligament. This study aims to explore accurate location of bone tunnel in reconstruction of CC ligament in virtual model vs. real model based on 3-dimensional (3D) printing navigation module technology.
Methods: Eighty human shoulders including clavicle and scapula were scanned by dual-source computed tomography (CT). CT scans of shoulder joints including clavicle and scapula were imported and repositioned by Mimics 19.0 software to form a whole model, then find the best bone tunnel through digital optimization design. Next, in Mimics 19.0 and Geomagic Studio software, form the clavicle navigation module as virtual model for 3D printing, thus generate real model. Then 10 parameters of a real bone tunnel and virtual bone tunnel could be measured and compared.
Results: Eighty human shoulders including clavicle and scapula were designed and printed successfully. Then 10 parameters of the real and virtual bone tunnel were recorded and compared. No difference was significantly found between the real and virtual bone tunnel in 10 parameters (p>0.05). Conclusions: Based on 3D printing navigation module technology, it was reliable to determine accurate location of bone tunnel for reconstruction of CC ligament, which could reduce the complications.