In this paper, a biosensors based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PhC) waveguide including a ring resonator is designed and simulated based on refractive index changes of red blood cells. The proposed biosensor structure consists of an elliptical photonic crystal ring resonator and two linear waveguides containing silicon nitride rods in a 2D rectangular lattice with circular rods. The biosensor is utilized to detect the stages of the Plasmodium falciparum cycle in red blood cells and to diagnose malaria disease. The proposed design distinguishes with high sensitivity between normal red blood cells and cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum. This biosensor is very compact, consists of gold rods in the air background and works very well at two input central wavelengths of 0.514 μm and 1.55 μm. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to simulate and investigate the device. The biosensor is extremely compact which is very suitable for lab-on-chip applications and exhibits higher sensitivity at both input central wavelengths compared with that of previously reported sensors.