Background Multiple interventions have been implemented over the years to decrease malaria morbidity and mortality in Ghana. After years of rolling out these interventions, assessing its effect on the trends for decision making is key. The objective of this study was to understand the trends of malaria related deaths in the country from 2005 to 2014.
Methods Between September 2016 and June 2017, abstraction of retrospective data covering January 1st 2005 to December 31st, 2014 was conducted in 93 sampled health facilities providing AIDs/HIV, Tuberculosis and Malaria (ATM) services in Ghana. This paper is written out of a bigger study which looked at the mortality of ATM in Ghana. Abstraction form was used to retrieve socio-demographic and admission outcome of patients from facility registers, death certificates and inpatients registers. Data was entered using EpiData 3.1 statistical software package then exported to STATA 11 version for analysis. Bivariate analysis with Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were done to assess factors associated with malaria related mortality at a 5% level of significance.
Results A total of 667,186 admissions records related to malaria were retrieved in 93 hospitals from 2005 to 2014 with majority of the admissions being females (53.9%) and children under 5 years (47.8%). A total of 10,433(1.6%) of the admitted malaria cases were reported to have died with males and children under five years accounting for 51.0% and 26.6% respectively. Malaria case fatality rate showed an increasing trend from 2.2% in 2005 to 3.0% in 2007 and decreased to 1.1% in 2014. Malaria mortality declined by approximately 59% over the ten-year period with an average annual decline of 7%. Year of admissions, age, sex, insurance status and ownership of facility was significantly associated with mortality (p < 0.001). Sub-regional level hospitals have a decreased likelihood of malaria related mortality. A non-insured client increases the likelihood of mortality by 2.4 times (Odds Ratio = 2.4 p < 0.001).
Conclusion Malaria mortality declined over the ten-year period with an average annual decline of 7%. An increase in age and not having health insurance among malaria-related admissions increases the likelihood of mortality.