Despite bacterial-mediated biotherapies have been widely explored for treating different types of cancer, their implementation has been restricted by severe side effects and low treatment efficacies, due largely to the absence of tumor-specific accumulation following administration. Here, the conjugation of aptamers to bacterial surface is described by a simple and cytocompatible amidation procedure, which can significantly promote the localization of bacteria in tumor site after systemic administration. The surface density of aptamers can be easily adjusted by varying feed ratio and the conjugation is able to increase the stability of anchored aptamers. Optimal bacteria conjugated with an average of 2.8 × 105 aptamers per cell present the highest specificity to tumor cells in vitro, separately generating near 2- and 5-times higher accumulation in tumor tissue at 12 and 60 hours compared to unmodified bacteria. In both 4T1 and H22 tumor-bearing mouse models, aptamer-conjugated attenuated Salmonella show strikingly enhanced antitumor efficacy, along with highly activated immune responses inside the tumor. This work demonstrates how bacterial behaviors can be tuned by surface conjugation and supports the potential of aptamer-conjugated bacteria for both targeted intratumoral localization and enhanced tumor biotherapy.