Near-surface (10 m) wind speed (NWS) plays a crucial role in many areas, including the hydrological cycle, wind energy production, and the dispersion of air pollution. Based on wind speed data from Tazhong and the northern margins of the Taklimakan Desert in Xiaotang in spring, summer, autumn, and winter of 2014 and 2015, statistical methods were applied to determine the characteristics of the diurnal changes in wind speed near the ground and the differences in the wind speed profiles between the two sites. The average wind speed on a sunny day increased slowly with height during the day and rapidly at night. At heights below 4 m the wind speed during the day was higher than at night, whereas at 10 m the wind speed was lower during the day than at night. The semi-empirical theory and Monin-Obukhov (M-O) similarity theory were used to fit the NWS profile in the hinterland of the Tazhong Desert. A logarithmic law was applied to the neutral stratification wind speed profile, and an exponential fitting correlation was used for non-neutral stratification. The more unstable the stratification, the smaller the n. Using M-O similarity theory, the “linear to tens of” law was applied to the near-neutral stratification. According to the measured data, the distribution of φM with stability was obtained. The γm was obtained when the near-surface stratum was stable in the hinterland of Tazhong Desert and the βm was obtained when it was unstable. In summer, γm and βm were 5.84 and 15.1, respectively, while in winter, γm and βm were 1.9 and 27.1, respectively.