With the development of aerospace technology, the maneuverability of various types of aircraft continues to improve, and these aircraft experience an overload environment with high acceleration and high acceleration rate. Due to the special influence brought by the high acceleration rate, the dynamic centrifugal test technology, which is different from the traditional steady-state centrifugal test technology, came into being. The steady-state centrifuge has only one rotor, while the dynamic centrifuge has multiple rotors; so, the relationship between the acceleration of the control point and the motion parameters of the rotors is more complicated. Therefore, a key issue of the dynamic centrifugal test technology is the inverse kinematics of the dynamic centrifuge, which is to calculate the kinematic parameters of the dynamic centrifuge according to the expected acceleration environment that needs to be simulated on the centrifuge. After the kinematic parameters is calculated, the control target of each rotor of the dynamic centrifuge could be known, then the expected acceleration environment could be produced. In this paper, 1) on the basis of the predecessors, the equation for solving the angular velocity of the main arm of the centrifuge is improved; 2) and then a time step adaptive method is proposed, which takes into account the calculation accuracy and efficiency. As a result, an inverse kinematics algorithm that is more accurate and adaptable to various acceleration history curve is obtained. Finally, the inverse kinematics algorithm in this paper is verified through experiments and numerical simulations.