This study aims to analyze the factors affecting the technical inefficiency of palm oil plantations in Indonesia by using the stochastic frontier analysis based on the translog production function. The data used in this study are taken from the Central Statistics Agency (Agricultural Business Household Income Survey) in 2013. The number of samples used was 14367 farmers. The results revealed that there is still to increase in the efficiency of palm oil plantations in Indonesia. The production function suggests that increasing the number of trees can help to increase the number of outputs. Additionally, education, age, planting system, seed quality, extension service, and plasma farmer significantly influence the technical efficiency of palm oil plantation.