Throughout the history of mankind, there have been dependence and co-dependence between humans and animals. The use of animal parts or products as food, medicine, clothing, etc. is noticeable mutually by a broad geographical distribution and profound historical origins. Research suggests that humans evolved from a vegetarian lifestyle to one including meat in their diets around 2.5 million years ago (at the dawn of the genus Homo)  . Up until around 12,000 years ago, humans derived food and raw materials from wild animals and plants . Other evidence of ancient human-animal relationships is often seen in rock paintings that depict wild animals like bison, horses, and deer with human figures hunting them. This sort of evidence corroborates the observation of Marques , that human-animal interactions have constituted basic connections altogether societies throughout history.
The variety of interactions (both past and present) that human cultures maintain with animals is that the fabric of Ethnozoology, a science that has its roots as deep within the past because of the first relationships between humans and other animals. According to Sax , human attitudes towards animals probably evolved long before the first attempts to portray them artistically or examine them scientifically. In this sense, it’s been speculated that the origin of ethnozoology coincides with the looks of humans as a species or, perhaps more correctly, with the primary contact between our species and other animals . This view of ethnozoology assumes that these interactions are an integral a part of human culture and society.
Africa is best known for the enormous diversity and richness of its faunal resources. It has nearly 2,000 key biodiversity areas and supports the world’s most diverse and abundant large ungulates, or hoofed mammals populations   and freshwater fishes than any other continent. These animals are distributed within the two regions of the zoographic area referred to as the Paleotropical realm: the Afrotropical region, which comprises the continent south of the Sahara and the southwestern part of Arabia, and therefore the Madagascan region.
According to Bekele and Yalden , Ethiopia supports over 320 species of mammals, above 860 species of birds, 200 species of reptiles, 63 species of amphibians, and 145 species of fish diversities. All species of animals, ranging from insect larvae through rodents, antelopes, and monkeys are exploited for food, cloth, and traditional healthcare practices for the treatment of different human and livestock ailments. About 80% of the human population still depends on traditional medicine     .
In the present study, 39 animals and their parts or/and products that were believed to be medicine for over 159 kinds of ailments were identified from Diguna Fango district, Wolaita, Ethiopia. Other similar studies reported altogether 23 animals and/or their parts to be used in traditional medicines in Degu tribes in the Northern Tigray region of Ethiopia . A total of 21 animal species were used to prepare remedies for 46 ailments were reported in southern Ethiopia . Sixteen species of medicinal animals were collected and identified for treating 18 different human ailments within the Kafta-Humera District, Northern Ethiopia . A complete of 51 animal species were identified to treat around 36 different ailments from Metema Woreda, North-Western Ethiopia .
Away from Ethiopia, 147 medicinal vertebrate species representing 60 mammal species, 33 reptile species, 53 bird species, and 1 amphibian species were reported in South Africa . Oliveira et al.  also described 23 animal species that are being used as traditional medicines in Brazil. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in the treatment of ailments and disease in India, mammals comprised 50%; they were birds, fishes, reptiles, and amphibians . One hundred and eight species of animals, which include: 83% birds and 17% mammals were documented in South Asia, Pakistan . The study conducted by Borah and Prasad in India recorded a total of 44 different species of animals that are used for the treatments of 40 different ailments . Other findings in different parts of the world have identified different vertebrate species used for traditional medicine  .
In the study area, of the animals used therapeutically, 26(66.67%) species were mammals, 5(12.81%) were arthropods, 4(10.26%) birds, 3(7.7%) reptiles, and 1(2.56%) fishes. In a similar study from Ethiopia, of 51 animals used therapeutically, 27(52.9%) species were mammals, 9(17.6%) were birds, 7(13.7%) arthropods, 6(11.76%) reptiles, and 1(1.96%) species each represented fish and annelids . A total of 21 animal species were used to prepare remedies for 46 ailments; 14 (66.64%) were mammals, 3(14.28%) were reptiles and 4(19.04%) were birds from southern Ethiopia . The highest proportion of mammalian species in zootherapeutic activity was also observed by Felipe et al.  in Brazil. However, insects occupied the very best uses (30.9%), followed by mammals (23.8%), fishes (16.7%), reptiles (11.9%), amphibians (7.1%), annelids (4.8%), and gastropods (4.8%) during a similar study from India .
The inhabitants of the study area were found to use different parts/products of animals in the preparation of traditional remedies for the treatment of various illnesses. The parts/products of animals were grouped under meat/fat, external organs, blood, visceral organs, whole body, excreta, bone/teeth, and product categories and these categories were similar to ones reported by Haileselasie  and Kendie et al. . Other findings also stated that wild and domestic animals and their by-products such as hooves, skins, bones, feathers, and tusks are important ingredients in the preparation of curative, protective, and preventive medicine    . Meyer-Rochow  also reported different organs of invertebrate animals used as traditional medicines. Among the different animal body parts used for remedial preparation in the present study, visceral organs (bile, fat, tongue, juices, liver, rumen, spleen, pancreas) and animal products (honey, milk, butter, cheese, egg) have the highest proportion each with 18 (20.45%), followed by meat 13(14.7% ). However, other similar findings reported flesh with the highest proportion (33.8%), followed by fat (11.5%), bone (8.6%), and blood (8.6%)  .
This study showed that traditional medicines were administrated by drinking 31(33.7%) followed by eating 21(22.8%), tying 11(11.96%), topical application 6(6.5%), fumigation and massaging each 4(4.35%), painting and dropping each 3(3.26%), smelling and handling each with 2(2.17%), holding on, washing, wearing and biting each 1(1.1%). Other studies reported similar findings from North-Western Ethiopia . During the fumigation process, the medicinal fumes were allowed to enter the body via nasal openings to treat different ailments. Some parts of animals like bones, skin, and teeth were believed to be medicine by tying on the neck or other parts of the body .
The dermal (72%), nasal (14%), and oral routes (14%) were the foremost commonly used routes of administration within the study area. In line with this study, Kindie et al. (2018) reported oral, nasal, and dermal routes because the most ordinarily known administration routes of traditional remedies in their study area. Other similar findings reiterated oral (69.8%), dermal (21.6%), (7.2%) nasal, and (1.4%) auditory meatus routes because of the most ordinarily practiced routes of administration .
From this study, it had been observed that 2 animal species with an FL 100% (Table 4) like cattle which is employed for the treatment of herniated disc (FL = 100%), and Lepus fagani used for the treatment of wound (FL = 100%). Other animal species with an FL above 90% were 5 in numbers like Lepus fagani used for the treatment of stunting in children (FL = 98%), Homo sapiens used for the treatment of evil eye (ghoul) (FL = 97%), domestic sheep used for the treatment of weight gain (FL = 97%) and Bos taurus are used for the treatment of cold, bone fractures, energy gain, toxin, gastritis each with (FL = 90%). However, Canis familaries and Naja naja have the lowest fidelity level (FL = 9%). The animal species that are widely wont to treat a specific ailment by the local people have higher FL values than people who are less popular  . From this study, the results indicate that one animal can treat a variety of human ailments, and one ailment is often treated by many animal species. As an example, cold may be a major disease and may be treated by quite 15 animal species. The animals; Phacochoerus africanus, Hystrix cristata, Bos taurus, Equus africanus asinus, Homo sapiens, etc. were wont to treat quite three human ailments (Table 4). Other similar findings in Ethiopia reported equivalent trends    . Far away from Ethiopia, this fad has also been described in many studies on traditional medicinal remedies in several parts of the planet  [47     .
The relative frequency of citation (RFC) index was calculated to work out the local importance of every species. The foremost cited animal species were: Bos taurus (RFC = 1.00), Gallus gallus domesticus (RFC = 0.95), Sylvicapra grimmia (RFC = 0.88), Apis mellifera (RFC = 0.86) and Orycteropus afer (RFC = 0.82). The highest value of the RFC index was scored by Bos taurus (RFC = 1.00) which shows the importance of this animal species within the study area because it was mentioned by a better number of informants . However, animal species with low RFC values for instance All tick spp. (RFC = 0.14) and Papio anubis (RFC = 0.12) don’t mean that they’re not important locally but it’s going to be that the majority of the people aren’t conscious of their therapeutic properties (Table 4).
Comparison with previous studies
Some of the animal species getting used in ethnic communities of this study area have also been reported to be used for similar purposes elsewhere. The study also showed better therapeutic and remedial purposes with the animal parts and byproducts to treat different ailments (Table 1). For instance, porcupine meat is employed for the treatment of bacterial infections, weight gain, swelling, rheumatism, stunting, stomach pain, pleurisy, bone fracture, and malaise. The soup and bile from an equivalent animal are used for the treatment of paralysis, stunting, and pleurisy, respectively. Tan et al.  and Gomez  reported similar findings from Indonesia and Malaysia, respectively.
Drinking the milk of cows is employed for the treatment of gastritis, weight gain, and typhoid. Other similar findings reported an equivalent thing from their study areas (Altaf et al., 2017) . Most of the time, the inhabitants within the study area prescribe milk to drink if someone took in toxic chemicals in an accident. They believe that the toxic chemicals will prolong the body as if the patient drinks the milk. This finding is reported for the primary time as completely unique within the present study. Eating raw spleen is employed for the treatment of pleurisy and sciatica. At an equivalent time eating liver fresh has a good health-promoting effect especially in anemic-related conditions which are in line with the finding of Kendie et al. . Drinking bile or eating during a mixture of already prepared foods is common practice to alleviate a fever associated with malaria. In line with this study, the therapeutic uses of animal biles in traditional Chinese medicine are reviewed by Wang and Carey .
Butter is eaten directly or during a mixture with other foods for the treatment of pleurisy, bone fractures, common cold, and weight gain. Other similar findings reiterated the medicinal use of butter in line with this study . The appliance of butter on the top of the head is employed to alleviate a severe headache within the present study is supported by Gemechu and Tola . Holding the fresh butter inside the auditory meatus is common practice alleged to assist the natural clearing of earwax from an individual’s ear and to alleviate otalgia (earache). Placing onto the teeth may help to alleviate teeth ache. Consistent with Dentrix , butter is really an actual effective food for dental health in line with this study.
Drinking churned milk is used to gain energy and plays a great role in strengthening the teeth especially in children in the present study is supported by the work of Thorning et al.  and Malmir et al. . Drinking rumen is used for the treatment of swelling and skin disease. Drinking digestive juice plays a significant role in the treatment of fever related to malaria and throat cancer. The part of the leg (below knee, up to hoof) is finely cooked in a large pot for three up to four consecutive days with spices. Then, drinking the soup directly helps to relieve cold and popular treatment for bone fractures and slipped discs in humans. This finding is novel and has not been reported elsewhere despite their golden therapeutic importance.
Drinking the excrement of donkeys is used for the treatment of cold in chicken, sinusitis, and bronchitis in humans. Drinking raw milk is also used for the treatment of asthma, pleurisy, and pneumonia in the present study is supported by Schwarcz  and Prasad . Breast milk of humans is used for the treatment of eye disease especially for a child by dropping onto the eye is in line with the findings of Diego et al. . Urinating to the wound allows the wound to become covered by scab during the healing process and speed the recovery. Ramesh et al.  also reported the wound healing activity of human urine.
Taking hair (mow) from the ghul or ghulah (a person with the spirit of the evil eye) and milling, mixing with water then drinking or direct fumigation in fire and smelling the smoke is used for the treatment of the evil eye (ghoul). This finding is novel and has not been reported elsewhere, however, it is a commonly practiced means of evil eye treatment in the study area. The fur of the Ethiopian hare is applied to the wound (dressed) so that scab is formed immediately. No matter how this medication is popular and practiced in the whole community since time immemorial, no reports were identified to support the present work. This makes the present finding a novel.
The visceral fat of python is used for the treatment of rheumatism particularly in the head region, cold, asthma, headache, and skin disease either tying on hand or fumigation. Another similar finding has reported the use of fat in the treatment of skin disease and rheumatism .
The ingestion of the tongue and excrement of the spotted hyena is used for the treatment of evil eye, sciatica, and stomach pain and also helps to improve the quality of milk in livestock. The sole, eyelash, and teeth play a significant role in the treatment of running problems, oversleeping, and lymphadenopathy by handing while walking feels sleeping, and tying around the neck, respectively. In line with the present study, magicality of the hyena in folklore studies dates back to the times of the ancient Greeks and Romans, who believed that different parts of the hyena's body were effective means to various aliments were reviewed by Frembgen .
Drinking fish soup is used for the treatment of cold; the meat and oil are for the treatment of bone fractures, and liver for treatment of eye disease. In line with the present study, other similar studies found that foods rich in omega-3s and calcium, like fish oil has bone-boosting benefits. Omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to visual development and therefore the health of the retina within the back of the attention. It was also reported that fishes are a great source of vitamin D, perfect for curing sniffles during cold and flu season   .
Eating the larvae of the honey bees is used for the treatment of pleurisy and stomach pain. Painting honey on the skin is used for the treatment of skin disease and eating in a mixture with garlic, ginger and milk may help to relieve erectile dysfunction (ED) and cold. The direct biting of bees may help to relieve fever. In line with the present study, other findings reported similar things in their review  .
Drinking the blood of sheep is used for the treatment of anemia. The milk is for asthma and cold. The meat is for weight gain in the present study is in line with the findings of Mohapatra et al. . Drinking blood and raw milk of goats is used for the treatment of anemia, fever, energy gain, cold, and any tropical diseases. In line with the present study, the nutritional and medicinal value of goat milk is reviewed by Singh .
Eating the tongue of a dog is used for the treatment of rabies and gastritis. Painting or dropping urine systematically onto the eye or eating in tiny amounts is used for the treatment of ear or eye disease (runny eye), wart, and skin disease is reported for the first time from the study area as a novel traditional therapy. Tying the skin of the monitor lizard on hand is used for the treatment of cold and rheumatism as reported from the Aho tribe of Nagaland . Eating the meat of rats was used to relieve stomach pain similar to the fining reported from northern Ethiopia .
Dosages of remedies
Generally, the dosage of remedies in the study area was not standardized; the amount depends on the practitioner who prepares the parts or products of animals for therapeutic purposes. In different doses for the treatment of similar conditions, the same animal species with a particular part are prescribed. Informants still lack consensus on the doses of certain prescriptions and insufficient dosing accuracy, these may be the major drawbacks of traditional medicines. It is commonly known that some traditional healers do give different dosages and frequency of application depending on age, sex, and other condition or vary the medicine itself on such differences.
Medicinal animals and their parts and/or products commercialization
In rural areas of Ethiopia traditional medication is the cheapest and sometimes the only form of healthcare available. Friends, relatives, and neighbors provide traditional treatment free of charge or paid in a more flexible arrangement such as payment in cash or kind and on a credit basis. This is specifically prevalent in rural communities. There is no organized commercialization of medicinal animals, except for the few cases where some foods with medicinal value are sold in small markets and roadsides.