The photocatalytic generation of hydrogen peroxide from water and dioxygen (H2O + 1/2O2 → H2O2, ΔG° = +117 kJ mol-1) under sunlight is a promising strategy for the artificial photosynthesis of a liquid fuel. We had previously found that resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin powders prepared by the base-catalysed high-temperature hydrothermal method act as semiconductor photocatalysts for H2O2 generation. Herein, we report that RF resins prepared by the acid-catalysed high-temperature hydrothermal method (~523 K) using common acids at pH < 4 exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity. The base- and acid-catalysed methods both produce methylene- and methine-bridged resins consisting of π-conjugated and π-stacked benzenoid-quinoid donor-acceptor resorcinol units. The acidic conditions result in the resins with a lower bandgap (1.7 eV) and higher conductivity because the lower degree of crosslinking creates a strongly π-stacked architecture. The irradiation of the RF-acid resins with simulated sunlight in water with atmospheric-pressure O2 generates H2O2 at a solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency of 0.7%, which is the highest efficiency ever reported for powder catalysts used in artificial photosynthesis.