Study type and design
A cross sectional study was designed as the study aimed to determine the level of pain and function with the demographic characteristics of people with chronic knee pain
Place and duration of study
Dhulikhel Hospital: Physiotherapy outpatient department and orthopedic outpatient department.It is an excellent site for data collection as it receives patients with knee pain from both rural and urban communities with different ethnicity and background making the sample more representative. The data was collected within 2 weeks of times and the study was done within 6 month of time.
Sample size and sampling method
A total of 78 participants was recruited after calculating sample size for non probability convenience sampling method for this study
Methods of data collection
Individuals with chronic knee pain and who show willingness to participate in the study were screened for the eligibility criteria. After screening, participants who were eligible were provided with a subjective information sheet. The participants were provided with demographic form with N-NPRS and N-PSFS questionnaire to fill up which took 3.5 to 5 minutes to complete. The data was collected, recorded and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.
Ethical approval and consent
This research was conducted after the approval from Institutional Review Committee, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences considering the guidelines to conduct research given by Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to data collection. Verbal consent was obtained if the participants could not sign, and a witness signed on their behalf.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
- Male and female participants of 18 years and above
- Participants who understands Nepali
- Participants who have knee pain for minimum 3 months
- Malignant conditions like Carcinoma of knee and other body parts.
- Recent knee surgery/ trauma / fractures ( less than 3 months)
Statistical analysis and software used
Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 23 and78participants was be recruited from the formula of Sample size calculation:
We used Nepali version of numerical pain rating scale and Nepali version of patient specific functional scale. NPRS is routinely used outcome measure for accessing the pain intensity in daily clinical practice. Out of many versions, the 11 point NPRS is most commonly preferred. It has acceptable psychometric properties. One of the main advantages of NPRS is that it can be used by people with low level of literacy as well and is routinely used in many countries and languages. NPRS-NP showed excellent test-retest reliability and a MDC of 1.13 points. NPRS-NP demonstrated a good construct validity The anchor on the left side corresponds to “no pain” that is zero and the anchor at the right side corresponds to the “worst possible pain” or “maximum pain”. It was administered by patient self-report and by face to face interview[25,26].Patient specific functional scale is a patient reported outcome measure in which patient themselves identifies the activity that are most important to them and rate them in a scale of 0 to 10 where higher score shows the better physical function. The proposed advantages of the PSFS include its wide applicability and ease of use clinically. PSFS-NP showed good reliability with Cronbach’s alpha = 0.75; ICC = 0.89.Self-reported difficulty in function using scale from the questionnaire was done in our study .