1. The physical significance of quantum parameters such as frequency, wavelength and period
Although not waves, quanta still have physical parameters such as wavelength, frequency and period. These parameters are used to describe the basic characteristics of quantum, such as the period of transition and the fluctuation of size.
According to photoelectron theory, all atoms are composed of the nucleus and the electrons outside the nucleus, and the electrons rotate around the nucleus in their own fixed orbit. According to the lowest energy principle, the electron is always first in a stable ground state in a lower energy orbital. If the electron gains the extra energy that allows it to break free of the nucleus, it makes the transition to a higher energy orbital, where the electron is in an unstable excited state. As the electron lowers its energy back to the ground state, it radiates out a photon whose energy is equal to the energy difference between the two orbitals. In general, the motion pattern of photons in a vacuum is considered to be uniform and straight. According to the authors, another mode of motion cannot be ruled out. The photon produced by the electron energy level transition may always be moving in a transition rather than a constant speed, the instantaneous velocity of the transition is not constant but periodic, and the period of the transition is constant with its corresponding frequency. Although the transition spacing is a fixed value in time, it can be changed according to the environment in which they live. In vacuum, the photon has the longest transition spacing. The higher the density of the medium, the shorter the transition spacing leads to the slower speed of light; the lower the density of the medium, the longer the transition spacing leads to the faster speed of light.
The size of the quanta may also fluctuate periodically.
Although the energy of a quantum is constant, the spatial distribution of its energy density may fluctuate periodically.
2. The light
Just as current is a directional flow of charge, light is a flow of photons. In any case, light never expresses the properties of waves. All the conclusions about light waves are a distortion of the relevant experimental results.
3. There is no collision or energy exchange between intersecting rays
Since photons have zero resting mass, they are transparent to each other, and no photon prevents others from using the space they occupy. Quantum theory also suggests that multiple photons can occupy the same space at the same time. Therefore, the cross-moving photons collide without any change, neither the energy exchange between the photons nor any change in the direction of motion of the photons.
An object with a nonzero rest mass can change the motion of a photon with a zero rest mass. When contact occurs, the object can change the direction of the photon or make it disappear.
In the double-slit interference test, the test results before the introduction of observation are multiple stripes alternating between light and dark, as shown in Fig. 11(a). According to the results of the experiment, the following conclusions can be drawn: light waves and interference waves produce interference fringes. If an observer is introduced, the result is only two bright fringes with a dark fringe between them, as shown in Fig. 11(b). According to the results of the experiment, the following conclusions are drawn: light is a particle, and there is no light interference phenomenon. The reason for the two different results was determined to be whether the results were observed. If so, the messy logic follows: it is the human eye that observes the phenomenon that the observer changes the result of the experiment. Observed by the human eye without introducing the interference phenomenon of the observer, the particle phenomenon after the introduction of an observer is also observed by the human eye. The human eye is constantly observing whether the observer is participating in the experiment. When the human eye observes the phenomenon of "whether the observer changes the test result in the double-slit interference test", if the observation of the observer can affect the test result, can the observation of the human eye also affect the test result?
If only the first observation can cause the wave-particle duality to collapse into a state, then the true first observation is the observation before the "introduction observation." At that time, the observation did not cause the wave-particle duality to collapse into waves; otherwise, the result of the double-slit test producing "interference" fringes would not have been observed.
If observed or not leads to different collapse results, why must the rule of collapse for the superposition of waves and particles be followed: when not observed, they collapse into waves, and when observed, they collapse into particles and not vice versa?
If the light that has collapsed into particles is used as a source of light and projected onto another double-slit device, can the "interference" fringe be generated again?
5. The conclusion that the speed of light is constant is questionable
The observation that the color of the binary star is constant leads to the conclusion that the speed of light is constant and independent of the reference frame. However, because light is not a wave, the Doppler effect is not possible, so the color of the binary star remains the same.
6. Dark matter cannot exist in the solar system
Derived from Hubble's law: the expansion of the universe, the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy and other theories. If it is correct, the solar system will not work because Kepler's three laws of planets are the result of the absence of dark matter and dark energy. After all, Uranus and Neptune were found using these three laws.