Profiles of poetic students and poems
In this study, twenty malaria poems were analyzed to understand the conveyed messages. The ages of students who developed the poems ranged from 12 to17 years old (mean age, 14.3 years). Females and males each contributed ten poems. The students were attending schools in grades 5-8. The all poems developed by Afan Oromo language and disseminated on school mini-media, parent days, school opening and closing occasions, community gatherings, and other events organized by education and health offices. Fig.1 presents photos of selected poems.
Message contents of malaria poems
A total of 602 specific contents generated from poems were put into twenty one categories that were lined-up along five themes about malaria prevention and control. These message contents were: knowledge about malaria and its prevention; perceptions of threat from malaria; effectiveness of preventive measures; misconceptions, beliefs and malpractices; and manifest calls to adopt malaria control behaviors and social changes. Moreover, the central themes of message contents were mainly expressed by metaphoric models and personified. Details narrated as below.
Thematic message 1: Knowledge about malaria
Knowledge about malaria and its prevention was one of the profound contents conveyed by poems developed by students in primary schools. The main poetic message contents about knowledge of malaria include causes and modes of transmissions, mosquito breeding and biting behaviors, sign and symptoms, and ways of prevention, treatment and control of malaria. Specifications were presented below:
Causations and mode of transmission of malaria:
The poems profoundly stressed on the cause of malaria. The poetic messages specified that malaria is caused by a parasite plasmodium that is transmitted through a bite of female mosquito by the name Anopheles that feeds on human bloods. In fact, the poems also conveyed a message content that the bite by female anopheles mosquitoes will cause malaria only when previous bite was made with someone who has the parasite plasmodium in their blood stream.
For example, one grade 5 female student from Botor-Tolay district indicated in her:
“…All mosquitoes do not cause the disease malaria
It is caused by female mosquito that feeds on red blood cells
It is called as anopheles mosquito
While the parasite is known as plasmodium...”
Another grade 5 male student of 13 from Gera district wrote:
“…Malaria is transmitted by female anopheles mosquito
The causing parasite is called plasmodium.
The mosquito transmits the diseases to another person
By first sucking blood which contains plasmodium parasite
It further transmits the diseases to other people.”
The poems noted that a single mosquito can reach many people within a day or entire community within short period of time. By this content, the students conveyed latent message of potential risk mosquitoes can cause if barriers are consistently used in all seasons irrespective of low or reducing malaria infection.
“…Anopheles mosquito bites a lot of people in one night
Not the bites alone, it the disease that is transmitting...” (Grade 7 student,Nono Benja).
Mosquito biting behavior: Interestingly, the students also conveyed the biting behavior of the mosquitoes i.e. biting is mainly performed at night times, biting for sake of sacking blood to get elements that is required for their reproduction.
For example, one 8th grader female student from Gera district said the following in local language
“…Afaan wayii qabdi baayyee kan bal’atuu
Gaafa nama hiddee hidda namaa lixuu
Kan nama cininitus wal hormaataafi dha
Yeroon inni nama cininuus sa’ati galgalaa dha…” This literally means that the mosquito has a very sharp mouth. When it bites that sharp edge directly enters the person’s bloodstream. The reason of the bite mainly is for the sake of reproduction. And the biting time is often at the evening and night.
The students’ poetic messages specified that the malaria causing mosquitoes breeding sites include stagnant water, broken materials that hold water, grass, and swampy area.
For example, a grade 5 female student of 14 from Botor-Tolay district said:
“…the mosquito breeds in broken materials that hold water,
Multiply in swampy and abundant in the grass
Often proliferate during winter, but also in summer
It breeds on accumulated and stagnant water
And lays its eggs, 50-70 at one time
Completes its life cycle of metamorphosis
Then there will be plenty of them all over the world...”
Signs and symptoms: In their poems the students conveyed messages about distinguishable signs of malaria. The specifications to the signs and symptoms ranged from fever, headache, chills, feeling cold, weakness, joint pain, relapse, vomiting, and etc. For example, a grade 8 male student of 16 from Botor-Tolay said the following:
“…These are the symptoms of malaria:
It warms the body and causes headache,
Makes you to vomit and hate food to eat,
It weakens the body, though you may get better,
It is on and off as it comes again and again,
It is worsening in infants and pregnant women
Causing to feel cold it shakes the body,
Finally feel fatigue and lose your consciousness…”
Interestingly, the students noted a message content that these symptoms may relapse if they are not appropriately treated or the drugs are not completely taken. For example, one grade 5 female student from Shebe-Sembo district said the following in local language:
“..Har’aaf nuu dhiiftuus hoo isiino boor kaati
Dawaa nama hiruun baayyee dhorkaasaati
Yoo fuudhannee fixne maaluma nuu gooti (read 2X).” This stanza literally interpreted as; if we interrupt taking its drugs, malaria replaces at another time. It is strictly forbidden to share medicine with anyone or interrupt. We can be completely healed from malaria when we complete taking its drugs.
Ways of prevention and control: the students profoundly presented in their poems the knowledge about the methods of prevention, treatment, and control of malaria. ITN, IRS, and cleaning environments were the mainly presented preventive methods. In a local language, a grade 7 male student from Nono-Benja said:
“…Karaan ittisa dhibee kanaa
Karaa heeddu danuusatu jira
Bakka hormaata bookee busaa sirritti qulqullessu
Mana fincaani qadaadu, qodaa cabaa bishaan kusuu gatuun ballessu
Boolla bishaan kuusan keessa yaasuun gogsuu
Raqawwan xuraawaa naannoo irraa fageessu
Saaphana siree fannisuu
Yoo haanqinni saaphanaa jiraate dubarti ulfaaf dursa laachu
Daa’imman umuri shanii Gadiif fannisuu
Faayidaa biraaaf akka hin oolle ummata barsiisuu
Farra bookee busaa manatti biifsisuu.” In this stanza, the student indicated cleaning the surrounding, sleeping under ITN (including giving priority to pregnant women and under-five year old children when there is deficit), and IRS ways of preventing malaria disease.
The students also indicated malaria is best treated at health facility including community-based health posts by following drugs as prescribed by health workers. For instance, a grade 5 male student from Gera said:
“…When we learn that the symptoms suggest malaria
We need to go to health facility within one day
Understand and correctly practice the advice of health providers
Soon will manage it and will be free from the diseases…”
Care for ITN:
In the poems messages about ITN care were indicated. They mentioned ITN needs regular washing, dry under shadow, stitched when torn, and never used for any other purposes. A grade 8 male student of 17 from Nono-Benja district said:
“…If bed net becomes dirty, wash and dry it under shade.
If it becomes torn, repair or mend it.
When it gets 6 O’clock, suspend it carefully
Use it wisely and do not make it for other purpose…”
Thematic message 2:
Misconceptions, beliefs, and malpractices presiding in community
In their poems the students presented some misconceptions and beliefs presiding in the community. The beliefs were mainly pertaining to the nature, causes, and prevention of malaria. Perhaps, these could be raised in reference to the knowledge contents mentioned earlier.
Misconceptions about causes: Regarding causes, the students revealed it is believed in their community that eating sugarcane, dirty foods, hungry, and cold weather are some of misperceived causes of malaria. Literally one stanza from a poem developed by a 7th grade female student of 15 from Botor-Tolay said:
“…People talk different things about the cause of malaria
The cause of malaria is not what you think:
It is not lack/shortage of food,
It is not sleeping outdoors at day time.
If you ask me what is the right cause?
I will tell you there is only one, and one right cause
The transmitting mosquito named as anopheles
While the bacteria are called plasmodium…”
Preventive and treatment malpractices:
The poems picked that people shared some unhealthy norms regarding preventive/treatment of malaria: they tend to ignore seeking treatment early when signs of malaria are present, use previously saved drugs, share the drugs to each other, and using ITNs as fastening rope, sacks, etc. Regarding treatment related malpractices, one grade 6 male from Gera stated:
“Qoricha waliif hiruun haala maaf nu taati?
Qqarshii keenya baasuun fayyuudhaafi miti?
Qooricha fuudhatani nama biraafl laachuutu mul’ata
Mana yaalaa deemnaan qoricha ni argannaa
Qoricha argannes baasne gatuu miti
Sirnaan fayyadamaa akka dawaa ta’utti.” This one stanza literally is asking people about why they make habit of saving or sharing or interrupting drugs and do not seek care, and which finally advised appropriate use of drugs.
Regarding misuse of ITNs, a grade 6 male student of 16 from Botor-Tolay wrote in a local language:
“Agoobara jedhe motummaan gaaraa kaasee hanga dakatti raabse
Ummanni keenya garuu battalummatti gara hojitti baase
Itti hojjechuun yoom hafe barbarree,boqollo,shumbura waan hunda irrratti afe
Agobara argannee gaafa ji’a lamaa
Funyoosaa fo’ama jabbootaan hidhamaa
Waa’ee fayyaa dhifnee horiin fayyadamna
Kun mee sirri miti maaluumaaf gowwomna
Fayyaa keeyna dagannee maaliif horiin hidhanne?” These lines explicitly talked about government’s commitment of mass distribution of ITN versus people’s misuse as rope and sacks. It also indicated that is foolishness to misuse ITN that is intended for people’s health. Finally urged people for how long they would continue to be reluctant of their health while using ITN for unintended purposes.
Thematic message 3:
Threat perceptions from malaria and risk conditions
In the context of this study theme about perceived threat refers to contents that were included in the poems regarding risk conditions, perceived risk, and perceived severity.
Perceived risk or vulnerability: Along the poems students were initiating the community to feel the risk of infection by malaria or its serious form. It seems that in the community people started ignoring the risk of attack by malaria. To illustrate this, 5th grader male student from Limmu-Kossa stated:
“…Malaria attacks all persons:
Without permission and difference in age
Children and aged people
Everyone is potentially affected by it
It doesn’t fear the fatty ones
And never undermine the thin
Everyone should keep...”
The students indicated pregnant women and under-five children are at high risk of experiencing worsening form of malaria and needing priority for sleeping under ITN. A grade 6 female student, Nono-Benja said:
“…Giving priority for infants and pregnant is mandatory
We don't mean malaria doesn’t infect others
But it mainly hurts/affects them…
To save ourselves from malaria disease
We sleep under the bed net, especially the children and pregnant
They are more likely to get malaria;
This is because their bodies are weak and vulnerable.”
In the meantime, the poems warned the community to actively watch after their health from risk of potential sudden attacks by malaria and not ignoring seeking care anytime they have symptoms. A female student in grade 5 from Botor-Tolay mentioned:
“…Dhukkubichaan yoo qabamne
Mana marfee deemu yoo baannee
Sa’ati 24 carrraan nuuf laatame
Kana hunda goonaan carraan
Fayyuu keenya yeroo hidhoo keessatti
Kana itti amanaa hundumti keessani”. The lines urged the community to feel at risk, check their health regularly, and believe in seeking-care within 24-hours of symptoms onset.
The students mentioned the presence of wastes, grasses, plants with flat leaves, swampy areas, stagnant waters, and broken utensils that are favorable or breeding of mosquitoes are also risk conditions for malaria. So long as people live in such environment they at risk of malaria.
“…There are accumulated waters in our surrounding
Where the mosquitoes breed and multiply the disease.
They come to bite us and give us the disease.
So long as people don’t dry accumulated water in our area.” (Grade 5 male, Limmu-Kossa)
“...For the cause that we don’t clean our environment
For reason we don’t manage to safely dispose dirty water
Mosquito breeds there, and transmits the disease” (grade 8 male student, Shebe-Sombo).
The poems memorized several stories about seriousness of malaria that happened in community over the last few years. The death stories it caused and its effects on farming activities were the main examples of explanations given to seriousness of malaria.Illustrative quotation taken from 8th grader male student of 18 from Gera stated in local language:
“…Haaxxummaa busaa mee hubadhaa
Lola baayyee ulfaataa dha
Otuma hin beekin hubde nama fixxi
Utuma hin yaadiin lubbu namaa baasti
Maalii kan busaati baayyee jabaataa dha
Malli busaa baayyee ulfaataa dha
Dhaloota fixate abboota hin jenne
Hundarraa qubatte dhaloota hunda fixxee
Lafa mancaafte (read 2X) yommuu ilaalan
Ariifachisuun lubbu namaa baasaa
Jireenya hanqisaa lafa irraa ballessaa (read 2X)
Duri hunda ajjeese
Omishaa fi omishtumma gad xiqqeesse
Lammi kan koo beelatti hanbise.” This portion literary explained that malaria has taken the lives of many people over the past few years, caused sudden deaths, almost killed someone from every household, and affected farming and contributed to hunger.
Thematic message 4:
Perceived effectiveness of preventive measures
Introductory knowledge contents about key malaria control measures were reported previously. The current theme elaborated how the poems presented the effectiveness of the measures in putting malaria under the control of the community.
The students stressed in their poems that active use of ITN (any net) can safeguard a family and community from risk of malaria. ITN can trap malaria causing mosquitoes. ITN was presented as a frontline preventive material in the fights against malaria. An 8th grader male student from Botor-Tolay said:
“…Bed net is a treatment
It has a chemical which burns malaria.
By it you can avoid mosquito’s contact with your bloodstream.
You can protect yourself from malaria by sleeping under net.”
Indoor residual spray (IRS): It was sketched an outreach to attack mosquitoes that cause malaria. It was believed to effectively kill mosquitoes while resting indoor, and in peak breeding seasons.
“..It is possible to eliminate malaria mosquitoes
By getting antimalarial chemical spray in the home.” (Grade 6 male student, Botor-Tolay).
Cleaning surrounding: regular cleaning of compounds and surrounding environments was perceived as effective means of reducing risk conditions and chances of mosquito breeding. An 8th grader from Limmu-Kossa stated in a local language:
“…Naannoo jireenya keenya saatitti haa ilaalamuu
Lola cisaa yaafne yeroo yeroon ilaalle haa qulqullefamu
Naannoo jireenya keenya yeroo yeroon ilaalla
Naannoo jireenya koo irraa si fageessa
Naannoo qulqulessine of irraa eegannaa.” This literally means that regular cleaning of the surrounding is effective way of protecting their locality from mosquito and malaria. In fact, the poet committed oneself and other to engage on cleaning and get protected.
Treatment of malaria or suggestive symptoms:
the poems promoted the nearest health facility to effectively test, ruling-out, and manage malaria. A grade 6 male of 15 from Gera said the following:
“…If you are infected with malaria,
Go to the nearest health facility
Where you can get a treatment
If we recognize we have malaria symptoms
We should not die by sleeping in bed
Immediately get lifesaving treatment, which is our duty.”
Proper use of drugs:
The poems are contented with considerable messages about malaria drugs. Relapse of malaria disease was presented as a result of failing to complete taking anti-malaria drugs. Professional prescriptions are the only best means of getting proper and quality drugs.
A grade 5 female student from Botor-Tolay stated:
“If you observe anyone with symptoms of malaria
Take the person to nearby health facility
Why are you eaten by malaria while knowing this fact?
Completing the drugs given by the health provider is must
Leaving the drugs unfinished is our fault
The drugs completely taken, then malaria disappears from our body.”
A grade 8 male student of 17 from Nono-Benja wrote:
“…When we see symptoms of malaria,
Visiting health facility within 24 hours
Following the health professional’s advice correctly
Taking the drugs as prescribed by the health professional
Refraining ourselves from giving the drugs to someone else,
We can be saved from malaria.”
Thematic message 5:
Calls to adopt the control practices, and social and behavior changes
Closely linked to knowledge contents mentioned earlier, there were direct calls across the poems to adopt malaria control measures. These calls were to the practices of cleaning surrounding environment, ITNs use, caring IRS, seeking treatment for symptoms, and appropriate drug-use. Interestingly, there were contents that called to social change and collective engagement in eliminating malaria from their community and beyond.
Clean the surrounding environment:
across the poems the central messages left to community regarding malaria via the act of cleaning environment were multiple and fundamental. In the first place, the poems conveyed to community to have an internal locus of controlling malaria in that they can manage the breeding and attack by mosquitoes. A student of grade 6 from Botor-Tolay said:
“…We do not give place to malaria
Let's clean up our environment
Let’s remove mosquito’s breeding site
So that put our enemy under the control.”
Secondly, to achieve the control over malaria, the community should manage small water bodies/swampy or conditions that are suitable for mosquito breeding. An 8th grader from Limmu-Kossa indicated:
“..Qodaa caccabelle boollatti awwaalamaa
Balfi garaagaraas diidatti gubamaa
Bishaan ciises yaa’ee gadhiifamaa
Lafa margaa kessatti baay’inaan argamaa
Lafti margaalle qe’erraa haamamaa
Naannoo jireenya keenyaa yero yeroon ilaalla.” These lines appeal the community to dispose broken materials in pit, burn solid wastes, cut grasses, release any accumulated and irrelevant waters, and make these entire things regularly.
Take precautionary measures for IRS: In support of efforts to kill mosquitoes and control malaria, there were messages in the poems that commanded the community to adopt regarding IRS. One is precautionary measures following the spray, including proper ventilating and not painting the walls within 6 months of spray. A male student of grade 6 from Shebe-Sombo said:
“...Anti-malarial chemical spray is the third method
Let’s get out of home while spraying.
We will not get back home up until two hours
Never open the doors within 15 minutes of spray…”
Another student of grade 8 from Nono-Benja stressed,
“..When anti-mosquito chemical is sprayed,
Refrain yourself from painting and posting
Never paint and mold the wall with mud
Follow this command up until 6 months
The spray has anti-mosquito chemicals.
The sprayed drugs works up to 6 months,
You know that no painting or posting the walls
That is impossible, strictly forbidden.”
Utilization of ITN: the poems called the exposed community to utilize ITN. The students basically defined the practice of sleeping under ITN as an important weapon to fight malaria. They advised ITN use should become a normal part of daily actions: adapted by everybody at every night, all seasons, and never missed whenever owned. Moreover, the students urged for giving priority to pregnant women and children. Illustration captured by a grade 5 student from Limmu-Kossa said,
“…Let’s use bed net at every night
Tie it carefully up when we are awake.
Why do we damage it? Rather we care for it
We use it as it keeps our health
We eliminate malaria by using it.
We use it always and stay healthy
When not enough for all, play your obligation
Give priority for infants and pregnant women.”
In the poems ITN was also presented as precious material to care for through regular washing, drying under the shade, stitching when torn, and never used for unintended purposes like rope, sacks, and wraps. Interestingly, the students also depicted their educational and supportive roles in the act of caring for ITN. A grade 7 male student from Non-Benja stated,
“…Get up, arise, the educated children
It is your turn to teach your community
Tell them to sleep under the bed net
Not just sleeping under it, they should also care for it
We should observe the nets and follow it every day
We search it out and stitch whenever we see torn
Never forget to tie-up and suspend after using it.
It must also wash at every three-month
We use soap for wash and shade for drying.”
Seek treatment and drug-use for malaria:
by their poetic skills the students encouraged their audiences to seek treatment for malaria when distinguishable signs are present. Through previous quotations, two main messages were inherent in the poems regarding treatment: malaria should be treated at nearest health facility, and the treatment should be made early i.e. within 24 hours of onset of symptoms. Regarding drugs, given the malpractices presiding in the community, the poems urged the community to complete taking drugs as prescribed by the professionals. A grade 5 female student from Shebe-Sombo said in a local language,
“…Yoo fuudhannee fixne maaluma nuu gooti
Abbaan ofitti dhukkuba taanaan dhukkubni maal gooti
Siluma abbaan ofi dhukkubaaf dawaa ofiti
Qoricha mana yaalaa nama keennameeni
Fayyadamani osoo hin hanbisin
Hidda ishee ni kuuttu fayyaa ofi eegnani.” This stanza literally indicated that it is possible to total control malaria by taking care of ourselves, particularly by adhering to drugs as prescribed by health workers. One key note the poet underscored was that it not a disease that matters rather it is reluctance people have in observing the necessary healthcare.
Social and behavior changes towards malar elimination:
there were interesting messages in the poems that called the entire community and stakeholders to eliminate malaria through collective efforts and engagement. Several principles that defined the social change towards malaria elimination were inherent in the poems: have sense of ownership of elimination tasks (e.g.: cleaning environment and management of mosquitoes), feel responsible (e.g.: considering oneself as having role in the task), social cohesion (e.g.: building networks and keep unity to accomplish pertinent practices mentioned earlier), and collective efficacy and engagement (e.g.: acting together and involvement of all segments). A grade 8 male of 17 from Gera said the following,
“We will eliminate malaria by working together and keeping unity
We will educate our community and take care of our acquaintances
Parents and children all contribute for elimination of malaria.
We will start working elimination as of this year
So that it won’t kill us again like any time ever before
We will not pass malaria unto the next generation
We will eliminate malaria by working hand in hand
Let teachers eliminate malaria so that the community develops
Let you teach and consult our farmers
Let’s do what we can do and work with health providers
Accept their advice and observe what they say.
Let's get up in groups and individuals to eliminate it from our country.”
Another grade 5 student from Gera district wrote:
“…Let’s get up and make a campaign
To remove malaria from the country
Rise up, especially the educated students
Let’s start teaching from the uneducated student
Let’s go to our people to eliminate malaria
We drain stagnant waters by working together
Rise and stop it by standing in unity
Be strong everyone, and protect yourself”
Another grade 8 male student from Bator-Tolay wrote:
“... Rise up to eliminate malaria
Strengthen yourself and fasten your belt
Remove the ways of spread of the disease
Be united as working alone will make you tired
As old saying goes bonded strings will tie an elephant (read 2X)”
Metaphors, similes, and personifications promoted malaria preventive practices
It is not uncommon for poets to use figurative languages. Details of the figurative speeches presented in separate article. The current report was limited to few examples of metaphors, simile, and personifications.
Metaphors were defined as expressions that were used by directly representing perceptions and practices about malaria according to mental models (symbols, objects, situations, etc.) of the local community. War and deaths were symbolic representations used to indicate the need to engage in the fight of malaria and its prognosis if the fight is handled reluctantly. A grade 7 student from Nono-Benja said,
“...It is not as some people think malaria is mild
It kills if you don’t go to health facility
Let's get up for the fight don’t be lost in the battle
Oh, people of Jimma rise for the solution
Defeat the war against malaria.
Why are we beaten while we can win it?”
The death itself was expressed as “being consumed or eaten” i.e. to imply that deaths from malaria are premature and preventable, and should be modified through social and behavior changes. An 8th grader female student from Gera expressed,
“..Malaria wants to take the lives of many people
Just like yesterday when it consumed the lives of my people...”
In the poems ITN was represented by a trap i.e. a mental picture the students used to draw the attention of their audience; rural people use ‘trap’ for hunting animals e.g.: pigs, monkeys, etc. that damage their farming. This indicated the need to actively use ITN to trap mosquitoes. As when the poorly maintained traps loss to catch animals that damage farming, improper use of ITN make us loss the game over malaria. The mosquito is sketched as life stealing thief. A grade 6 male student from Botor-Tolay said,
“I will tie a trap and spend the night under it,
Where do you get me? Why do you try to bite me?
If you hang the trap, mosquito don’t bite you anymore
So, my people don’t joke regarding bed net,
Utilize it properly, don’t pierce and discard it
Hanging the trap on our bed, we will capture and trouble it
Finally it will cry anxiously and left in there...”
A grade 5 female student, from Shebe-Sombo represented mosquito as a life stealing thief:
“…We know that malaria has many lives
Why do we forget caring our life?
The Creator wants us to protect ourselves
Why do not we use the bed nets?
So that a thief will not enter the house
Through the door that we have opened (read 2X).”
Similes: The similes are close to metaphors, but liken malaria perception and practices to something else instead of direct representations. Similes were mainly used to express distinguishable signs/symptoms. For example, fever was expressed like sunny hot day, and chills in terms rainy season weather. A grade 5 student from Limmu-Kossa said,
“…It makes me hot like the sun burning sun in daytime
It also makes me to shiver like rainy season…”
Personifications were mainly assigned to malaria and mosquitoes. The mosquitoes acts of biting and causing disease assumed characters of people who do evil things while looking good in wiles (e.g.: some people attack others while laughing at them). A grade 6 male student from Botor-Tolay said,
“…This mosquito has a lot of threating activities
It has sharp mouth to feed on human blood.
It moves from person to person looking a normal man.
It hurts a lot though it looks harmless when it comes to you.”
Another grade 6 male of 15 from Gera expressed:
“Biting is caused by female mosquito.
It carried poison and attacked the community
It doesn’t fear God, while harming people
It works very hard to replicate itself”
Another grade 8, female student from Botor –Tolay personified malaria as:
“…We have been suffered from malaria
It builds a house and reproduced in our body
…It finally eats everyone it caught.”
Quantifying the message contents of the poems
Table 2 presents details of frequency of occurrences for thematic and categories of message contents across the poems. To assess the intensity of the underlying messages and the extent to which they were conveyed, the previously narrated contents were quantified in frequency table using total counts of 602 codes as denominator. Message about severity of malaria (101=16.8%), distinguishable signs and symptoms (66=11%), calls to practice of malaria prevention and elimination (63=10.5%), and effectiveness of ITN use (49=8.1%) were the commonest conveyed contents, respectively. Given hidden meanings of figurative speeches considered in separate article, the details of counts were not exhaustively presented in the current report. Nonetheless, count analysis of occurrence limited to three selected speeches indicated 27 out of 52 (51.9%) metaphors, 18 (34.6%) personifications, and 7 (13.5%) similes.
Occurrences of thematic and categories of malaria message contents, in twenty students’ poems Jimma zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, March, 2020.
Key malaria messages and categories
Thematic message 1: Knowledge about malaria
Signs and symptoms
Ways of prevention and control
Causations and mode of transmission of malaria
Caring for nets
Mosquito breeding behavior
Mosquito biting behavior
Thematic message 2: Calls to adopt practices, and changes
Social changes towards malaria elimination
Clean the surrounding environment
Utilization of ITN
Take precautionary measures for IRS
Seek treatment and drug-use for malaria
Thematic message 3: Threat perceptions from malaria
Perceived risk or vulnerability
Thematic message 4: Perceived effectiveness of measures
Insecticide treated nets/nets (ITNs)
Use of drugs
Treatment of malaria or suggestive symptoms:
Indoor residual spray (IRS)
Thematic message 5: Misconceptions, beliefs, and malpractices
Preventive and treatment malpractices
Misconceptions about causes
*Total message occurrences
*Counts of figurative speeches were excluded from the total, and independently reported in text.