1. Africa CDC. Africa CDC - COVID-19 Daily Updates [Internet]. Africa CDC. [cited 2021 Jul 13]. Available from: https://africacdc.org/covid-19/
2. Hulland E. COVID-19 and health care inaccessibility in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Healthy Longev. 2020 Oct 1;1(1):e4–5.
3. Johns Hopkins University. Mortality Analyses [Internet]. Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. [cited 2021 Jul 23]. Available from: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality
4. Geldsetzer P, Reinmuth M, Ouma PO, Lautenbach S, Okiro EA, Bärnighausen T, et al. Mapping physical access to healthcare for older adults in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-sectional analysis with implications for the COVID-19 response. medRxiv. 2020 Aug 26;2020.07.17.20152389.
5. Rice BL, Annapragada A, Baker RE, Bruijning M, Dotse-Gborgbortsi W, Mensah K, et al. Variation in SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks across sub-Saharan Africa. Nat Med. 2021 Mar;27(3):447–53.
6. Ataguba JE. COVID-19 Pandemic, a War to be Won: Understanding its Economic Implications for Africa. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2020 Jun 1;18(3):325–8.
7. Bonnet F, Vanek J, Chen M. Women and Men in the Informal Economy – A Statistical Brief. Manchester, UK: WIEGO;
8. United Nations Development Programme. Informality and Social Protection in African Countries: A Forward-looking Assessment of Contributory Schemes | UNDP in Africa [Internet]. UNDP Africa. [cited 2021 Jul 23]. Available from: https://www.africa.undp.org/content/rba/en/home/library/reports/informality-and-social-protection-in-african-countries--a-forwar.html
9. Hajj Hussein I, Chams N, Chams S, El Sayegh S, Badran R, Raad M, et al. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health. Front Public Health [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2021 Jul 13];3. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00269/full
10. Fisher KA, Bloomstone SJ, Walder J, Crawford S, Fouayzi H, Mazor KM. Attitudes Toward a Potential SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine: A Survey of U.S. Adults. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Dec 15;173(12):964–73.
11. Gerussi V, Peghin M, Palese A, Bressan V, Visintini E, Bontempo G, et al. Vaccine Hesitancy among Italian Patients Recovered from COVID-19 Infection towards Influenza and Sars-Cov-2 Vaccination. Vaccines. 2021 Feb 18;9(2):172.
12. Paul E, Steptoe A, Fancourt D. Attitudes towards vaccines and intention to vaccinate against COVID-19: Implications for public health communications. Lancet Reg Health – Eur [Internet]. 2021 Feb 1 [cited 2021 Jul 23];1. Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanepe/article/PIIS2666-7762(20)30012-0/abstract
13. World Health Organization. Ten health issues WHO will tackle this year [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2021 Jul 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/spotlight/ten-threats-to-global-health-in-2019
14. Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O’Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, et al. PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Sep 4;169(7):467–73.
15. Veritas Health Innovation. Covidence systematic review software [Internet]. Melbourne, Australia; [cited 2021 Jul 23]. Available from: https://www.covidence.org/
16. Bono SA, Faria de Moura Villela E, Siau CS, Chen WS, Pengpid S, Hasan MT, et al. Factors Affecting COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance: An International Survey among Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Vaccines. 2021 May;9(5):515.
17. Faezi NA, Gholizadeh P, Sanogo M, Oumarou A, Mohamed MN, Cissoko Y, et al. Peoples’ attitude toward COVID-19 vaccine, acceptance, and social trust among African and Middle East countries. Health Promot Perspect. 2021 May 19;11(2):171–8.
18. Adebisi YA, Alaran AJ, Bolarinwa OA, Akande-Sholabi W, Lucero-Prisno DE. When it is available, will we take it? Social media users’ perception of hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 2021 Mar 2;38:230.
19. Oriji PC, Allagoa DO, Obagah L, Tekenah ESE, Ohaeri OS, Atemie G. Perception about COVID-19 vaccine among patients at the federal medical centre, Yenagoa, South-South Nigeria. Int J Res Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Apr 28 [cited 2021 Jul 1]; Available from: https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=e3889043-fbda-4497-8644-9ebf0490e61b
20. Ekwebene OC, Obidile VC, Azubuike PC, Nnamani CP, Dankano NE, Egbuniwe MC. COVID-19 Vaccine Knowledge and Acceptability among Healthcare Providers in Nigeria. Int J Trop Dis Health. 2021 Apr 24;51–60.
21. Ditekemena JD, Nkamba DM, Mutwadi A, Mavoko HM, Siewe Fodjo JN, Luhata C, et al. COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Vaccines. 2021 Feb;9(2):153.
22. Ngoyi JM, Mbuyu LK, Kibwe DN, Kabamba LN, Umba EK, Tambwe PN, et al. Covid-19 vaccination acceptance among students of the Higher Institute of Medical Techniques of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Revue de l’Infirmier Congolais. 2020;4(2):48–52.
23. Nzaji MK, Ngombe L, Mwamba GN, Banza Ndala DB, Mbidi Miema J, Luhata Lungoyo C, et al. Acceptability of Vaccination Against COVID-19 Among Healthcare Workers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Pragmatic Obs Res. 2020;11:103–9.
24. Agyekum MW, Afrifa-Anane GF, Kyei-Arthur F, Addo B. Acceptability of COVID-19 Vaccination among Health Care Workers in Ghana. Adv Public Health. 2021 Apr 20;2021:e9998176.
25. Annan JJK, Norman BR, Mensah B, Enimil A, Kokuro C, Annan JJK, et al. Willingness to accept vaccination against SARS-cov-2: A survey of junior doctors. World J Adv Res Rev. 2021;9(3):159–66.
26. Ahmed MAM, Colebunders R, Gele AA, Farah AA, Osman S, Guled IA, et al. COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptability and Adherence to Preventive Measures in Somalia: Results of an Online Survey. Vaccines. 2021 Jun;9(6):543.
27. Mohamud AI, Mohamed S, Jimale K. Assessments of a COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate in population of Benadir region, Somalia. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2021 Jan 8;20:1–04.
28. Kanyike AM, Olum R, Kajjimu J, Ojilong D, Akech GM, Nassozi DR, et al. Acceptance of the coronavirus disease-2019 vaccine among medical students in Uganda. Trop Med Health. 2021 May 13;49(1):37.
29. Dinga JN, Sinda LK, Titanji VPK. Assessment of Vaccine Hesitancy to a COVID-19 Vaccine in Cameroonian Adults and Its Global Implication. Vaccines. 2021 Feb;9(2):175.
30. Zewude B, Zikarge T. Willingness to Take COVID-19 Vaccine Among People Most at Risk of Exposure in Southern Ethiopia. Pragmatic Obs Res. 2021 May 27;Volume 12.
31. Belsti Y, Gela YY, Akalu Y, Dagnew B, Getnet M, Seid MA, et al. Willingness of Ethiopian Population to Receive COVID-19 Vaccine. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2021 May 28;14:1233–43.
32. Corey L, Mascola JR, Fauci AS, Collins FS. A strategic approach to COVID-19 vaccine R&D. Science. 2020 May 29;368(6494):948–50.
33. Stojanovic J, Boucher VG, Gagne M, Gupta S, Joyal-Desmarais K, Paduano S, et al. Global Trends and Correlates of COVID-19 Vaccination Hesitancy: Findings from the iCARE Study. Vaccines. 2021 Jun;9(6):661.
34. Lin H-H, Ezzati M, Murray M. Tobacco Smoke, Indoor Air Pollution and Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLOS Med. 2007 Jan 16;4(1):e20.
35. Alqudeimat Y, Alenezi D, AlHajri B, Alfouzan H, Almokhaizeem Z, Altamimi S, et al. Acceptance of a COVID-19 Vaccine and Its Related Determinants among the General Adult Population in Kuwait. Med Princ Pract Int J Kuwait Univ Health Sci Cent. 2021;30(3):262–71.
36. Williams L, Gallant AJ, Rasmussen S, Brown Nicholls LA, Cogan N, Deakin K, et al. Towards intervention development to increase the uptake of COVID-19 vaccination among those at high risk: Outlining evidence-based and theoretically informed future intervention content. Br J Health Psychol. 2020 Nov;25(4):1039–54.
37. Leask J, Kinnersley P, Jackson C, Cheater F, Bedford H, Rowles G. Communicating with parents about vaccination: a framework for health professionals. BMC Pediatr. 2012 Sep 21;12(1):154.
38. Aurilio MT, Mennini FS, Gazzillo S, Massini L, Bolcato M, Feola A, et al. Intention to Be Vaccinated for COVID-19 among Italian Nurses during the Pandemic. Vaccines. 2021 May;9(5):500.
39. Baghdadi LR, Alghaihb SG, Abuhaimed AA, Alkelabi DM, Alqahtani RS. Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on the Upcoming COVID-19 Vaccine in Terms of Their Exposure to the Influenza Vaccine in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Vaccines. 2021 May;9(5):465.
40. Detoc M, Bruel S, Frappe P, Tardy B, Botelho-Nevers E, Gagneux-Brunon A. Intention to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial and to get vaccinated against COVID-19 in France during the pandemic. Vaccine. 2020 Oct 21;38(45):7002–6.
41. Wang J, Jing R, Lai X, Zhang H, Lyu Y, Knoll MD, et al. Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic in China. Vaccines. 2020 Aug 27;8(3):E482.
42. Caserotti M, Girardi P, Rubaltelli E, Tasso A, Lotto L, Gavaruzzi T. Associations of COVID-19 risk perception with vaccine hesitancy over time for Italian residents. Soc Sci Med 1982. 2021 Mar;272:113688.
43. Green MS, Abdullah R, Vered S, Nitzan D. A study of ethnic, gender and educational differences in attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines in Israel – implications for vaccination implementation policies. Isr J Health Policy Res. 2021 Mar 19;10(1):26.
44. Betsch C, Brewer NT, Brocard P, Davies P, Gaissmaier W, Haase N, et al. Opportunities and challenges of Web 2.0 for vaccination decisions. Vaccine. 2012 May 28;30(25):3727–33.
45. Cooper LZ, Larson HJ, Katz SL. Protecting public trust in immunization. Pediatrics. 2008 Jul;122(1):149–53.
46. Kata A. Anti-vaccine activists, Web 2.0, and the postmodern paradigm--an overview of tactics and tropes used online by the anti-vaccination movement. Vaccine. 2012 May 1;30(25):3778–89.
47. Dror AA, Eisenbach N, Taiber S, Morozov NG, Mizrachi M, Zigron A, et al. Vaccine hesitancy: the next challenge in the fight against COVID-19. Eur J Epidemiol. 2020 Aug 1;35(8):775–9.