1. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. States of Fragility 2018: Highlights [Internet]. OECD; 2018 [cited 2021 Jan 12]. 24 p. Available from: https://www.oecd.org/dac/conflict-fragility-resilience/docs/OECD%20Highlights%20documents_web.pdf.
2. Haar RJ, Rubenstein LS. Health in post-conflict and fragile states [Internet]. Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace; 2012 Jan [cited 2021 Jan 14]. 16 p. Available from: https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/SR_301.pdf.
3. Feldbaum H, Michaud J. Health diplomacy and the enduring relevance of foreign policy interests. PLoS Med. 2010 Apr 20; 7(4):e1000226.
4. Martineau T, McPake B, Theobald S, Raven J, Ensor T, Fustukian S, et al. Leaving no one behind: lessons on rebuilding health systems in conflict- and crisis-affected states. BMJ Glob Health. 2017 Jul 28; 2(2):e000327.
5. Slaymaker E, Scott RH, Palmer MJ, Palla L, Marston M, Gonsalves L, et al. Trends in sexual activity and demand for and use of modern contraceptive methods in 74 countries: a retrospective analysis of nationally representative surveys. Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Apr 1; 8(4):e567-e79.
6. Percival V, Richards E, MacLean T, Theobald S. Health systems and gender in post-conflict contexts: building back better? Confl Health. 2014 Oct 22; 8(19).
7. Haslegrave M. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the sustainable development goals and the post-2015 development agenda: less than a year to go. Reprod Health Matters. 2014 Nov; 22(44):102-8.
8. Goodkind D, Lollock L, Choi Y, McDevitt T, West L. The demographic impact and development benefits of meeting demand for family planning with modern contraceptive methods. Glob Health Action. 2018; 11(1):1423861.
9. Canning D, Schultz TP. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning. Lancet. 2012 Jul 14; 380(9837):165-71.
10. Bornemisza O, Ranson MK, Poletti TM, Sondorp E. Promoting health equity in conflict-affected fragile states. Soc Sci Med. 2010 Jan; 70(1):80-8.
11. Woodward A, Sondorp E, Witter S, Martineau T. Health systems research in fragile and conflict-affected states: a research agenda-setting exercise. Health Res Policy Sys. 2016 Jul 21; 14(51).
12. Ranson K, Poletti T, Bornemisza O, Sondorp E. Promoting health equity in conflict-affected fragile states [Internet]. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine; 2007 Feb 3 [cited 2021 Jan 25]. Available from: https://www.who.int/social_determinants/resources/csdh_media/promoting_equity_conflict_2007_en.pdf.
13. Newbrander W, Waldman R, Shepherd-Banigan M. Rebuilding and strengthening health systems and providing basic health services in fragile states. Disasters. 2011 Oct; 35(4):639-60.
14. Ahuka OL, Chabikuli N, Ogunbanjo GA. The effects of armed conflict on pregnancy outcomes in the Congo. Int J of Gynaecol Obstet. 2004 Jan; 84(1):91-2.
15. Coghlan B, Brennan R, Ngoy P, Dofara D, Otto B, Stewart T. Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: results from a nationwide survey [Internet]. International Rescue Committee; 2005 [cited 2021 Jan 19]. Available from: http://archive2.grip.org/bdg/pdf/g4231.pdf.
16. McGinn T, Casey SE, Purdin S, Marsh M. Reproductive health for conflict-affected people: policy, research and programmes [Internet]. London, UK: Humanitarian Practice Network at Overseas Development Institute; 2004 Apr [cited 2021 Jan 16]; No 45:[37 p.]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242709948_Reproductive_health_for_conflict-affected_people_Policy_research_and_programmes.
17. Keasley J, Blickwedel J, Quenby S. Adverse effects of exposure to armed conflict on pregnancy: a systematic review. BMJ Glob Health. 2017 Nov 28; 2(4):e000377.
18. UNAIDS. UNAIDS data 2020 [Internet]. UNAIDS; 2020 Jul 6 [cited 2021 Feb 17]; [436 p.]. Available from: https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/2020_aids-data-book_en.pdf.
19. Spiegel PB, Bennedsen AR, Claass J, Bruns L, Patterson N, Yiweza D, et al. Prevalence of HIV infection in conflict-affected and displaced people in seven sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review. Lancet. 2007 Jun 30; 369(9580):2187-95.
20. Spiegel PB. HIV/AIDS among conflict-affected and displaced populations: dispelling myths and taking action. Disasters. 2004 Sep; 28(3):322-39.
21. Omare D, Kanekar A. Determinants of HIV/AIDS in armed conflict populations. J Public Health Afr. 2011 Mar 1; 2(1):e9.
22. Mock NB, Duale S, Brown LF, Mathys E, O'maonaigh HC, Abul-Husn NKL, et al. Conflict and HIV: a framework for risk assessment to prevent HIV in conflict-affected settings in Africa. Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 2004 Oct 29; 1(1):6.
23. Mills EJ, Singh S, Nelson BD, Nachega JB. The impact of conflict on HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J STD AIDS. 2006 Nov; 17(11):713-7.
24. Becker JU, Theodosis C, Kulkarni R. HIV/AIDS, conflict and security in Africa: rethinking relationships. J Int AIDS Soc. 2008 Sep 22; 11:3.
25. Iqbal Z, Zorn C. Violent conflict and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa. J Polit. 2010 Jan; 72(1):149-62.
26. Gruber J. Does conflict increase vulnerability to HIV infection? Issues for a research agenda. Afr J AIDS Res. 2006 May; 5(1):41-8.
27. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Jassir FB, Say L, Chou D, Mathers C, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2015, with trends from 2000: a systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2016 Jan 18; 4(2):e98-e108.
28. Lawn JE, Blencowe H, Waiswa P, Amouzou A, Mathers C, Hogan D, et al. Stillbirths: rates, risk factors, and acceleration towards 2030. Lancet. 2016 Feb 6; 387(10018):587-603.
29. World Health Organization. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health and ageing [Internet]. WHO; c2021 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. Available from: https://www.who.int/data/maternal-newborn-child-adolescent-ageing/maternal-and-newborn-data.
30. Deitch J, Stark L. Adolescent demand for contraception and family planning services in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Glob Public Health. 2019 Sep; 14(9):1316-34.
31. Kalamar AM, Tunçalp Ö, Hindin MJ. Developing strategies to address contraceptive needs of adolescents: exploring patterns of use among sexually active adolescents in 46 low- and middle-income countries. Contraception. 2018 Jul; 98(1):36-40.
32. Li Z, Patton G, Sabet F, Zhou Z, Subramanian SV, Lu C. Contraceptive use in adolescent girls and adult women in low- and middle-income countries. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Feb 19; 3(2):e1921437.
33. Moreira LR, Ewerling F, Barros AJD, Silveira MF. Reasons for nonuse of contraceptive methods by women with demand for contraception not satisfied: an assessment of low and middle-income countries using demographic and health surveys. Reprod Health. 2019 Oct 11; 16(1):148.
34. Wulifan JK, Brenner S, Jahn A, De Allegri M. A scoping review on determinants of unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in low and middle income countries. BMC Womens Health. 2016 Jan 15; 16(1):2.
35. Amjad S, MacDonald I, Chambers T, Osornio-Vargas A, Chandra S, Voaklander D, et al. Social determinants of health and adverse maternal and birth outcomes in adolescent pregnancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2019 Jan; 33(1):88-99.
36. Kebede AS, Muche AA, Alene AG. Factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcome in Debre Tabor town, northwest Ethiopia: a case control study. BMC Res Notes. 2018 Nov 19; 11(1):820.
37. Kramer MS. The epidemiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes: an overview. J Nutr. 2003 May; 133(5 Suppl 2):1592S-6S.
38. Kurth F, Bélard S, Mombo-Ngoma G, Schuster K, Adegnika AA, Bouyou-Akotet MK, et al. Adolescence as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome in Central Africa--a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 20; 5(12):e14367.
39. Dias SS, Mbofana F, Cassy SR, Dias S, Augusto GF, Agadjanian V, et al. Estimating risk factors for HIV infection among women in Mozambique using population-based survey data. Afr J AIDS Res. 2018 Mar; 17(1):62-71.
40. Drain PK, Smith JS, Hughes JP, Halperin DT, Holmes KK. Correlates of national HIV seroprevalence: an ecologic analysis of 122 developing countries. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Apr 1; 35(4):407-20.
41. Fox AM. The social determinants of HIV serostatus in sub-Saharan Africa: an inverse relationship between poverty and HIV? Public Health Rep. 2010 Jul-Aug; 125 Suppl 4(Suppl 4):16-24.
42. Wojcicki JM. Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for HIV infection in women in East, Central and Southern Africa: a systematic review. J Biosoc Sci. 2005 Jan; 37(1):1-36.
43. Gelaw YA, Magalhães RJS, Assefa Y, Williams G. Spatial clustering and socio-demographic determinants of HIV infection in Ethiopia, 2015-2017. Int J Infect Dis. 2019 May; 82:33-39.
44. Fleming PJ, Shakya H, Farron M, Brooks MI, Lauro G, Levtov RG, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to family planning and gender equity among husbands of adolescent girls in Niger. Glob Public Health. 2020 May; 15(5):666-77.
45. Mustafa G, Azmat SK, Hameed W, Ali S, Ishaque M, Hussain W, et al. Family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married men and women in rural areas of Pakistan: findings from a qualitative need assessment study. Int J Reprod Med. 2015; 2015:190520.
46. Salisbury P, Hall L, Kulkus S, Paw MK, Tun NW, Min AM, et al. Family planning knowledge, attitudes and practices in refugee and migrant pregnant and post-partum women on the Thailand-Myanmar border – a mixed methods study. Reprod Health. 2016 Aug 19; 13(1):94.
47. McGinn T, Austin J, Casey SE, Schlecht J, Anfinson K, Sharer M, et al. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries. Confl Health. 2011 Jul 13; 5(11).
48. The DHS Program. Demographic and Health Surveys [Internet]. Rockville, MD: ICF; c2021 [cited 2021 Jan 5]. Available from: https://dhsprogram.com/.
49. Corsi DJ, Neuman M, Finlay JE, Subramanian SV. Demographic and health surveys: a profile. Int J Epidemiol. 2012 Dec; 41(6):1602-13.
50. The DHS Program. AIS overview [Internet]. Rockville, MD: ICF; c2021 [cited 2021 Jan 5]. Available from: https://dhsprogram.com/methodology/survey-types/ais.cfm.
51. IPUMS Global Health. Harmonized international survey data on maternal, child, and reproductive health [Internet]. University of Minnesota; c2021 [cited 2021 Jan 5]. Available from: https://globalhealth.ipums.org/
52. ICF International Inc. The demographic and health surveys (DHS) program [Internet]. ICF International; c2021 [cited 2021 Jan 5]. Available from: https://www.icf.com/clients/health/demographic-health-surveys-technical-assistance.
53. Boyle EH, King M, Sobek M. IPUMS demographic and health surveys. Version 8 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS and ICF; c2020. [cited 2020 Aug 10]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.18128/D080.V8.
54. The World Bank Group. Classification of fragile and conflict-affected situations [Internet]. World Bank Group; c2021 [cited 2021 Jan 15]. Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/fragilityconflictviolence/brief/harmonized-list-of-fragile-situations.
55. The World Bank Group. CPIA criteria 2017 [Internet]. World Bank Group; 2017 Sep 1 [cited 2021 Jan 15]. Available from: http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/203511467141304327/CPIA-Criteria-2017v2.pdf.
56. ACLED. The armed conflict location & event data project [Internet]. ACLED; c2021 [cited 2021 Jan 15]. Available from: https://acleddata.com/#/dashboard.
57. UCDP. Uppsala conflict data program: department of peace and conflict research [Internet]. Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University; c2021 [cited 2021 Jan 15]. Available from: https://ucdp.uu.se/exploratory.
58. Croft TN, Marshall AMJ, Allen CK, et al. Guide to DHS statistics: DHS-7 (version 2). [Internet] Rockville, MD: ICF; 2020 May [cited 2021 Jan 23]. Available from: https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/DHSG1/Guide_to_DHS_Statistics_DHS-7_v2.pdf.
59. Beier ME, Ackerman PL. Determinants of health knowledge: an investigation of age, gender, abilities, personality, and interests. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003 Feb; 84(2):439-48.
60. Freimuth VS. The chronically uninformed: closing the knowledge gap in health. In: Ray EB, Donohew L, editors. Communication and health: systems and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1990. p. 171-186.
61. Neisser U, Boodoo G, Bouchard Jr TJ, Boykin AW, Brody N, Ceci SJ, et al. Intelligence: knowns and unknowns. Am Psychol. 1996; 51(2):77-101.
62. Sandman D, Simantov E, An C. Out of touch: American men and the health care system [Internet]. New York: The Commonwealth Fund; 2000 Mar [cited 2021 Feb 7]: [60 p.]. Available from: https://www.commonwealthfund.org/sites/default/files/documents/___media_files_publications_fund_report_2000_mar_out_of_touch__american_men_and_the_health_care_system_sandman_outoftouch_374_pdf.pdf.
63. IBM. IBM SPSS software [Internet]. IBM; c2021 [cited 2021 Jan 3]. Available from: https://www.ibm.com/analytics/spss-statistics-software.
64. Knudsen UB, Hansen V, Juul S, Secher NJ. Prognosis of a new pregnancy following previous spontaneous abortions. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1991 Mar 21; 39(1):31-6.
65. Regan L, Braude PR, Trembath PL. Influence of past reproductive performance on risk of spontaneous abortion. BMJ. 1989 Aug 26; 299(6698):541-5.
66. Risch HA, Weiss NS, Clarke EA, Miller AB. Risk factors for spontaneous abortion and its recurrence. Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Aug; 128(2):420-30.
67. Ticconi C, Pietropolli A, Specchia M, Nicastri E, Chiaramonte C, Piccione E, et al. Pregnancy-related complications in women with recurrent pregnancy loss: a prospective cohort study. J Clin Med. 2020 Sep 1; 9(9):2833.
68. Habib NA, Daltveit AK, Bergsjø P, Shao J, Oneko O, Lie RT. Maternal HIV status and pregnancy outcomes in northeastern Tanzania: a registry-based study. BJOG. 2008 Apr; 115(5):616-24.
69. Li H, Liu J, Tan D, Huang G, Zheng J, Xiao J, et al. Maternal HIV infection and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Hunan province, China: a prospective cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Feb; 99(8):e19213.
70. Rollins NC, Coovadia HM, Bland RM, Coutsoudis A, Bennish ML, Patel D, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-infected and uninfected women in rural and urban South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Mar 1; 44(3):321-8.
71. Onah HE, Obi SN, Agbata TA, Oguanuo TC. Pregnancy outcome in HIV-positive women in Enugu, Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Apr; 27(3):271-4.
72. United Nations Foundation. FP family planning 2020 [Internet]. Washington, DC: United Nations Foundation; c2020 [cited 2021 Jan 6]. Available from: https://www.familyplanning2020.org/.