Lignocellulosic biomass upgrading has become a promising alternative route to produce transportation fuels in response to energy security and environmental concerns. As the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, hemicellulose mainly containing xylose is an important carbon source that can be used for the bioconversion to fuels and chemicals. However, the adaptation phenomena could appear and influence the bioconversion performance of xylose when Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was transferred from the glucose to the xylose environment. Therefore, it is crucial to elucidate the mechanism of this adaptation phenomena, which can guide the strategy exploration to improve the efficiency of xylose utilization.
In this study, xylose-utilizing strains had been constructed to effectively consume xylose. It is found that the second incubation of yYST218 strain in synthetic complete-xylose medium resulted in a 1.24-fold increase in xylose consumption ability as compared with the first incubation in synthetic complete-xylose medium. The results clearly showed that growing S. cerevisiae again in synthetic complete-xylose medium can significantly reduce the stagnation time and thus achieved a faster growth rate, by comparing the growth status of the strain in synthetic complete-xylose medium for the first and second time at the single-cell level through Microfluidic technology. Although these xylose-utilizing strains possessed different xylose metabolism pathways, they exhibited the “transient memory” phenomenon of xylose metabolism after changing the culture environment to synthetic complete-xylose medium, which named ‘xylose consumption memory (XCM)’ of S. cerevisiae in this study. According to the identification of protein acetylation, partial least squares analysis and the confirmatory test had verified that H4K5Ac affected the state of “XCM” in S. cerevisiae. Knockout of the acetylase-encoding genes GCN5 and HPA2 enhanced the “XCM” of the strain. Protein acetylation analysis suggested that xylose induced perturbation in S. cerevisiae stimulated the rapid adaptation of strains to xylose environment by regulating the level of acetylation.
All these results indicated protein acetylation modification is an important aspect that protein acetylation regulated the state of “XCM” in S. cerevisiae and thus determine the environmental adaptation of S. cerevisiae. Systematically exploiting the regulation approach of protein acetylation in S. cerevisiae could provide valuable insights into the adaptation phenomena of microorganisms in complex industrial environments.