Background: Poland syndrome is a rare congenital disease consisting a spectrum of defects occupied by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. It is also closely associated with some malignant diseases and some benign diseases, such as breast cancer, lymphoma, recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax, perforating dermatosis, hemangioma, gastric cancer and lung cancer. The low incidence of Poland syndrome has hindered investigators’ attempts to develop randomized prospective trials, so the disease is poorly understood. Now We find out a case of Poland’s syndrome associated with adenocarcinoma of right lung, in which before this article there was only article depicting a case of lung squamous cancer with poland syndrome, this is an interesting topic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of poland syndrome closely related to lung cancer.
Case presentation: A 61-year-old man came to the hospital accompanied by intermittent dry cough and hemoptysis that lasted for 2 months. Chest CT revealed showed a large lobulated mass about 5.5cm × 4.0 cm × 3.0 cm in the right lower lung field and the normal right pectoralis major muscle and pectoralis minor were both absent. we diagnosed the patient with stage IIIa lung adenocarcinoma. After two cycles of preoperative platinum-doublet chemotherapy, we have performed a regular right lower lobectomy and lymph node dissection. Until now, after 2.5 years of follow up, he did not relapse.
Conclusions: In addition to some other reported types of malignancies, there is increasing evidence that an association between these two clinical entities. Although we do not understand the underlying mechanisms, we assume there exists some common gene pathways that regulate these two clinical entities. Because these patients who got Poland syndrome are susceptibility to different kinds of malignancies, longitudinal epidemiological studies may be needed.