World Wide Fund for Nature, Finland  first developed the Green Office Standard as an office management program with the main objective of reducing resource consumption and wastage in the office work process, achieve savings to lessen the burden of CO2 emission and carbon footprint released by office's operations in the environment. Green Office Standard offers guidelines for office management that are environmentally sustainable. It is a management system in the office which is easy to implement by training the office staff to change their behavior to be responsible for the office's resource usage. Having a certified Green Office standard has a long-term goal of resource efficiency, energy conservation, reduce pollution and wastage in the offices' work process and recycle the generated waste if applicable and these changes in the work process and behavior will achieve savings to create a healthy environment, by lessening the burden on the environment. In other words, the Green Office Standard was developed with objectives of continual improvement in the office work environment, in terms of minimizing resources and wastage, to reduce the environmental impact of daily office work operations. It is commonly seen that in the daily operation of the office works process, lots of energy, paper, ink are consumed and at the same time many wastes are generated too and all these are responsible for greenhouse gas emissions. Every organization, government, or non-government, can participate to be certified as Green Office Standard. But to be a certified Green Office Standard, such organizations and their offices should follow certain criteria guidelines in the office work operations, management, and behavior of staff, employees, stakeholders, and customers by motivating and adopting environmentally sustainable habits that conform to the standard. A qualified Green Office is provided with a Green Logo Certificate.
1.1 Review of Literature
DEQP (Department of Environmental Quality Promotion) is the pioneer agency that propagates and supports the importance of conservation, pollution reduction, and promotion of eco-friendly products for a healthy environment. DEQP has made many attempts with introducing and implementing projects for developing a sustainable environment in Thailand and Green Office is one such project targeting to find a sustainable solution in the organization of the office's management since daily office operations consume a lot of energy, paper, ink, etc., and also generate much waste. So, under the sponsorship of DEQP, Aroonsrimorakot et al.  evaluated the Green Office Projects in Thailand in terms of social, economic, and environmental impact of these projects concerning SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) of the United Nations. The data for the evaluation was collected through the application of questionnaires from 73 offices, along with the guidelines of multistage evaluation, monitoring, and analyzing participating offices in their daily office's work operation process and procedure for certifying as a green office standard. The evaluation result found a high satisfaction rate from the participants on national auditors, office staffs knowledge, and awareness of the benefits of green office and the office's operation procedure, purchase of equipment, lighting, air conditioning, paper, ink, printer, etc. As a result of the study, the study recommended upgrading the Green Office Standards in Thailand at the International as per the SDGs. Aroonsrimorakot et al.  conducted another descriptive study by reviewing available literature about the purpose and principles of green office, characteristics of green office, the procedure to establish a green office, and comparative analysis of the green offices of five countries having green offices, Singapore, Hong Kong, Finland, UK, the USA along with Thailand. The article reported that a sustainable workplace is essential for environmental sustainability and this can be achieved through the establishment of green offices for behavioral changes of the office staff and efficient management practices. Green Office Standards helps to reduce natural resource consumption in the office, promote a sustainable lifestyle through training, and providing guidelines to the office staff for enhancing environmental awareness. Careless office operation has caused environmental deterioration, and care should be taken by office staff in the selection of office procurement and for consumption, and at the same time, they should have awareness with taking responsibility to save energy and resources and reduce waste that is harmful to the environment. If wastes are generated, they should be reused or recycled and if not applicable for reusing, they should be managed and disposed of at an appropriate site and such steps will help to prevent environmental quality deterioration . So, Green Office Standards was developed to change the behavioral practice of the staff to lessen human activities' impact on the environment, resulting in greenhouse gas emission, climate change, and global warming . This deterioration of the environment is increased as there is increasing use of fossil fuel energy in the office's work process such as air-conditioner, lighting, printer, computer, traveling vehicles, meeting, or procurement, which increasingly emit CO2, thus leading to environmental deterioration . As a safeguard, offices' should initiate some steps to ward off or lessen the effect of office activities that cause environmental problems. The Green Office Standard provides guidelines criteria to save resources, reduce energy consumption and office wastes by encouraging staff to reuse and recycle, procure eco-friendly equipment, product, or services to solve these environmental problems [3,7, 8, 9]. As a first step to encounter the impact of climate change and other environmental hazards, all established organizations should reform their office practices by adopting the green office principles and following the indicators, for the efficient management of resources used in the offices’ environment . Varanavicius and Navikaite  further highlighted the necessity of proactive environmentally friendly approaches in resource usage and activities, particularly in the office organization, for environmental sustainability and economic development in recent decades due to the global impact of environmental changes and economic crisis. An organization's office should have certain qualifications listed as guidelines criteria to be certified as Green Office. Some of the criteria include 1. Save resources used in the office such as energy, water, paper, ink; 2. Switch to using renewable energy; 3. Minimize pollution and waste, while promoting reuse and recycle of resources; 4. Innovate and adopt design that is environmentally friendly and use green materials in the construction of buildings and so on [12, 13]. So, DEQP has developed and assessed the quality of Green Office Standard environmental management in offices of Thailand since the fiscal year 2013. In course of time, within a short span, it has expanded its establishments to many parts of Thailand and at the same time developed and upgraded the eco-friendly office, including both Governmental and Non- Governmental Organizations, Public and Private. All responsible agencies or organizations investigate greenhouse gases emission in all departments, zones, or provinces and the supply chain network and consumptions. This investigation will help in leading to a green society having sustainable production and consumption. The above review of the literature suggests that the target objective of developing the Green Office Standard is to change the behavior in the offices’ work process, promote benefits of saving resources, and reduction in waste to create a sustainable society with a sustainable environment, that is, to create an eco-friendly workplace with the promotion of sustainable circular economy. Thus the development of green office standards is very important as it will motivate staff to perform office tasks for environmental sustainability through offices staff training and education, thus helping to promote office’s staff’s awareness about the advantages of following the Green Office Standard. Following the criteria will result in dual benefits, including the office and the environment .
1.2. Research Objectives
This research aims to describe the criteria-guidelines for the development of Green Office Standard in Thailand so as to bring convenience in promoting the establishment of green offices all over Thailand. The main objectives of developing green office management standard of Thailand are as follows:
Application of Green Office Practices in office organizations for improving environmental sustainability
To evaluate sustainable practices in the offices
To certify the participating office for sustainable environmental awareness by training and imparting education to office staff on using energy-saving devices, renewable energy sources, reduce and recycle waste, etc.
The specific objective of this research article is to describe the working guidelines criteria of green office standards, which can be grouped into six categories:
1. Policies determination, operation planning, and continual improvement
2. Communication and creating awareness
3. Resource and energy consumption
4. Office waste management
5. Environment and safety
6. Eco-friendly procurement