In this paper, a protocol-based controller is designed for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) with multiple sensors, which are powered by environment-dependent energy harvesting (EDEH) devices, respectively. The Round-Robin (RR) protocol is adopted to coordinate the data transmission of sensors. The protocol-based transmission can be realized only when the energy harvested by EDEH devices is sufficient. The aim of this paper is to design the protocol-based controller to ensure the stochastic finite-time boundedness (FTB) with EDEH and RR protocol. Firstly, modeling the EDEH by a switching sequence with varying sojourn probabilities, assuming a finite battery capacity constraint, and associating protocol-based transmission with a given energy cost, we propose a new recursive model to depict the dynamic of energy levels for each sensor. Then, combining with stochastic analysis and the dynamic of energy levels, the explicit expressions of the controller for each environment with average dwell time (ADT) are obtained. Finally, an example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed controllers.