In this paper, an adaptive genetic algorithm is used to conduct an in-depth study and analysis of English text background elimination, and a corresponding model is designed. The curve results after the initial character editorialization are curved and transformed, and the adaptive genetic algorithm is used for the transformation to solve the influence of multiple inflection points of curve images on feature extraction. Then, using the minimum deviation method, the error values of the input characters and the sample set in the spatial coordinate system are calculated, and the deviation values of the angle and the straight line are used to match the characters with the smallest deviation value to match the highest degree. A genetic algorithm is introduced to iterate the feature sets of angles and line segments, and the optimal features are finally derived in the process of cross evolution of generations to improve the recognition accuracy. And the character library is used as input items for average grouping for experiments, and the obtained feature sets are put into the position matrix and compared with the samples in the database one by one. It is found that the improved stroke-structure feature extraction algorithm based on a genetic algorithm can improve the recognition accuracy and better accomplish the recognition task with better results compared to others. Finally, by analyzing the limitations and characteristics of traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm and differential evolution algorithm, and giving full play to the advantages and applicability of different algorithms, a new differential evolution particle swarm algorithm with better performance and more stable performance is proposed. The algorithm is based on the PSO algorithm, and when the population update of the PSO algorithm is stagnant and the search space is limited, the crossover and mutation operations of the DE algorithm are used to perturb the population, increase the diversity of the population, and improve the global optimization ability of the algorithm. The algorithm is tested on a common dataset for text mining to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the algorithm.