Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of an early extubation strategy on outcomes following complete repair of pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and hypoplastic pulmonary artery.
Methods: 113 patients undergoing complete repair surgery of pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and hypoplastic pulmonary artery between 2016 and 2018 were included in our retrospective propensity-score matched study. Propensity score matching was conducted in 1 to 2 ratio to balance the covariables impacting on clinical outcomes between groups. The primary outcomes were defined as length of intensive care unit stay, postoperative length of hospital stay and in-hospital medical cost. The secondary outcomes included postoperative complications such as re-intubation, re-exploration, in-hospital mortality, arrhythmia and etc.. In addition, blood product consumption were also abstracted.
Results: Compared with matched controls, patients in the early extubation group were demonstrated with a significant reduced length of intensive care unit stay (Median: 1.9 d νs. 4.1 d, p=0.039), postoperative length of hospital stay (Median: 9.0 d νs. 17.0 d, p=0.007) and in-hospital medical cost (Median: 69.5×1000CNY νs. 17.0×1000CNY, p=0.041). As for the postoperative complications, the occurrence of re-intubation, re-exploration, in-hospital mortality, arrhythmia and renal replacement therapy was similar between groups. However, pulmonary complications (p=0.049) were with a significantly lower rate in the early extubation group. In addition, fresh frozen plasma (p=0.041) transfusion volume were significantly reduced in the early extubation group rather than packed red blood cells and platelets.
Conclusions: Early extubation following complete repair of pulmonary atresia improved clinical outcomes and reduced in-hospital medical cost without increasing any postoperative complications.