We will use a multidisciplinary team, with expertise in emergency management of children, pediatrics, research methodology, and implementation science, to identify evidence to answer our review question: What are the characteristics of successful implementation strategies used in emergency management of children?
We will adopt Arksey and O’Malley’s 5-stage framework to conduct the scoping review , by identifying and stating our research questions, eligibility criteria, search strategy, study selection, charting included data, collating and summarizing our results. The present protocol has been registered within the Open Science Framework platform (registration ID: https://osf.io/h6jv2) and is being reported in accordance with the reporting guidance provided in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement  (see checklist in Additional file 1).
Study eligibility criteria
This review will focus on studies conducted in an emergency management setting, reporting evidence used on individuals expected to be under pediatric care (e.g. 21 years and below , who were managed in an emergency setting. Our focus is on controlled studies that applied a protocol/guideline or a specific treatment or treatment plan in an emergency setting compared to before implementation or to another setting in which the implementation strategy was not applied. Our intervention of interest will be any implementation strategies as described earlier . Literature will be limited to peer-reviewed, full-text articles published in English. There will also be no limits on the date of publication. We will exclude studies that do not mention any implementation strategy in the application of protocols/guidelines/treatment/treatment plans in the management of the pediatric emergencies.
A medical librarian has designed and will execute a literature search strategy in MEDLINE (Ovid) from inception through May 29, 2019 (see Additional file 2). The search strategy will also then be adapted for other bibliographic databases: Embase (Ovid), Cochrane Central (Wiley) and Cinahl (Ebsco). All retrieved records will be imported into an Endnote (X8).
Two pairs of reviewers will independently screen identified citations for eligibility using a two-stage sifting approach to review the title, abstract, and full-text article. We will record the number of ineligible citations at the title and abstract screening stage, and both the number and reason for ineligibility at the full-text articles. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between reviewers or by involving another reviewer when necessary.
We will develop data extraction forms in MS Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA) and pilot them on a small selection of studies. For each included study, data will be extracted by one reviewer and checked by another for errors. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between reviewers or by involving another reviewer when necessary. We will extract the following data:
- Study details: First author, year of publication, country, study design, study period, study objective (what is being implemented), area of study (classification)
- Intervention: Use of any of the implementation strategies; dissemination strategies (including developing messages and materials, distribution of evidence-based information), implementation process strategies, integration strategies, capacity building and scale-up strategies, the numbers and types of implementation strategies used.
- Number/ proportion of participants after intervention implementation, effect estimate measured (e.g., percentage/proportion/mean difference/odds ratio/hazards ratio/relative risk/ risk difference). This is a direct effect on providers.
- Number/ proportion of patients receiving intervention after implementation, effect estimate measured (e.g., percentage/proportion/mean difference/odds ratio/hazards ratio/relative risk/ risk difference). This is an indirect effect on providers.
We will present specific characteristics and outcome measures of all included studies in a tabular form. The analysis of the extracted data will be descriptive. A summary of different types of implementation strategies in emergency management of children, the types of study designs, and the direct and/or indirect effects produced will be presented in a narrative format.