This paper focuses on investigating the impacts of political connections on households’ income and their agricultural investment in mountainous areas of Vietnam by employing several matching methodologies. Propensity score matching (PSM) is an increasingly well-known approach for evaluation studies in agricultural economics. Additionally, this study attempts to verify the significance of political connection in rural economics. To conduct the empirical approach, the article uses surveyed data of 550 households from three provinces in the north of Vietnam. The findings indicate that political connection has a significantly positive impact on households’ total income and farming behaviour, but has a very negative impact on households’ agricultural investment. The difference between the income of the connected and non-connected group of households is estimated at approximately 30 million VND (US$ 1,304) per year. However, the total income of the connected households is not heavily based on agricultural production, their non-agricultural activities account for a larger share of their total income. Another important outcome is to confirm the privileges of politically connected households in terms of receiving extension courses that substantially increase the inequality between rural households in survey areas because the distribution of government subsidy is distorted to target the necessities.