Neutron imaging is a non-destructive inspection technique with a wide range of potential applications. One of the key technical interests concerning neutron imaging is to achieve micrometer-scale spatial resolution. However, developing a neutron detector with a high spatial resolution is a challenging task. Recent efforts are focused on achieving this milestone or even submicrometer spatial resolution. Herein, we introduce our technique for neutron imaging using a fine-grained nuclear emulsion and evaluate the spatial resolution. We used the fine-grained nuclear emulsion with a gadolinium-based Siemens star test pattern and a grating with a periodic structure of 9 μm. The deduced value of the spatial resolution is less than 1 μm using the developed technique. To the best of our knowledge, the submicrometer spatial resolution that we achieved using our method is the best among all reported neutron imaging devices.