Bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) is a member of an embryonic signaling cascade that is involved in lung development, but in mature tissue it plays key roles in both cancer and neurological disease. In cancer BMPR2 regulates cell survival signaling events independent of BMP type 1 receptors or the Smad-1/5 transcription factor. BMPR2 contributes to neurological disease when its signaling pathway is overactivated, and BMPR2 stabilizes microtubules. However, it is not yet known if BMPR2 regulates microtubules in cancer cells or what effect that would have on cell survival. To examine this, researchers recently inhibited BMPR2 signaling in lung cancer cell culture and found that it destabilized microtubules. This destabilization led to the activation of lysosomes, which then further decreased BMPR2 signaling. This likely sensitizes cancer cells to cell death via lysosomal permeability. These results demonstrate novel mechanisms by which BMPR2 regulates survival in cancer cells. Other studies have shown that inhibition of BMPR2 downregulates the expression of some pro-survival proteins. Taken together these studies suggest that BMPR2 signaling should be evaluated as a potential chemotherapeutic target for treatment of cancer.