For three-dimensional pentamode metamaterials, it is of great significance to realize underwater ultra-low frequency acoustic wave control. Therefore, two types multilayer composite cylindrical three-dimensional pentamode metamaterials with ultra-low frequency and broad band gaps are proposed in this paper. By using pentamode metamaterials with lattice constants on the order of centimeters, the phononic band gaps below 60 Hz and the single-mode area below 30Hz can be obtained. Compared with asymmetrical double-cone locally resonant pentamode metamaterials, the lower edge frequency, relative bandwidth and figure of merit of the first phononic band gap can be reduced by up to 61.4%, 10.3% and 40.6%, respectively. It will provide reference and guidance for the engineering application of pentamode metamaterials in controlling the ultra-low frequency broadband acoustic waves, vibration and noise reduction.