6.1 Concentrations of Metals in Waste Newspapers
Arsenic is naturally present in the plants that were used to produce the paper, which has trace amounts of it . Arsenic has cutaneous, developmental, hematological, reproductive, and vascular consequences when it is consumed . The SML (Singapore Ministry of Health) advised a concentration of As of 0.1 mgKg-1 as suggested by Korean regulations,” the authors noted . In the waste newspapers used for this investigation, the As concentration ranged from 1.94 to 4.01 µgKg−1 in Al-Ahram (Egypt) and Arab News (Saudi), with a mean value of 2.83 µgKg−1 in a light font. The mean concentration of bold font was 4.88 µgKg−1, whereas the maximum and minimum concentrations of As were 3.03 and 6.28 µgKg−1, respectively, in Al-Ahram (Egypt) and Al-Watan (Egypt). In Al-Watan (Egypt) and Al-Akhbar (Egypt), however, the concentration of As in newspaper pictures ranged from 4.60 to 8.56 µgKg−1, with an average concentration of 6.10 µgKg−1 (Table 2) Figure (1, 2, 3). The As acquired values were "much lower than the SML" (Singapore Ministry of Health). Human safety as established in this investigation reveals that human exposure was within acceptable limits when compared to the allowable weekly timed consumption for As of 15 µgKg-1 of body weight, as shown in (Table 2) .
The basic structure of cadmium red and cadmium yellow, which are frequently used in newspapers because they include brighter color pigments than other dyes, and it is highly chosen for printing inks and has already been employed in a variety of other applications .
According to the findings, the maximum and minimum concentrations of cadmium for light fonts were found in Urdu News (Saudi Arabia) and Indian newspapers, respectively 0.54 and 3.55 µgKg−1, with an average 1.59 µgKg−1, Table 2. These concentrations are substantially lower than the limit values 2 and 0.5 mgKg−1 and are consistent with the 94/62/EC Directive (2015) and the safety limit proposed by the Council of the European Communities (1993) [20, 29–31].
The average concentration of Cd in bold fonts was 1.59 µgKg-1, while the maximum and minimum concentrations were 0.88 and 13.42 µgKg-1, respectively, in Indian newspapers and Arab News (Saudi). These concentrations are substantially lower than the permitted values 2 and 0.5 mgKg-1, according to the EPCD, 2015 and the safety limit established by the European Council (1993). As demonstrated in Table 2, Figure 1,2,3, the level of Cd in all newspaper samples was within normal limits, however it was substantially high in strong fonts compared to light fonts [29, 32].
The concentration of Cd in pictures in the Urdu News (Saudi) and Arab News (Saudi) was 1.17 and 5.59 µgKg-1, respectively, with the average concentration 2.98 µgKg-1. When compared to other newspapers, the concentration of Cd in Arab News (Saudi) was high, although it was lower than the recommendation value provided by the EPCD, 2015 and the safety level proposed by the European Council (1993) 2 and 0.5 µgKg-1, respectively. The high concentrations of Cd in several newspaper pictures confirm Zalewski's point of view . This variance was related to the wide range of pigment and paint quality. The concentrations in this group of samples were lower than those found in other literature surveys [33, 34, 30]. As demonstrated in Table 2, Figure 1, 2, 3 [29, 35], the levels of Cd in all newspapers did not exceed the Cd concentration limit set by the 94/62/EC Directive (2015) .
The cadmium level in this study confirms that human exposure was within safe limits based on contact newspaper compared to the permissible temporary weekly intake of Pb of 7 µgKg−1 body weight, but it should be considered that these newspapers are being used in fields where they are not intended (Table 2) Figure (1, 2, 3) .
Chromium is toxic to humans since it is carcinogenic and mutagenic in nature , and it is primarily found in printing inks . According to Skrzydlewska et al. 2003, the optimum chromium level is 0.25 to 0.64 mgKg−1. The chromium levels in the trash newspapers utilized for this study ranged from 4.25 to 13.21 µgKg−1 in Sharaq-Al-Aqsah (Egypt) and Al-Dastoor (Egypt), with a mean concentration of 6.86 µgKg−1 in light fonts in Sharaq-Al-Aqsah (Egypt) and Al-Dastoor (Egypt), in the case of bold fonts, the mean value was 9.75 µgKg−1 in Sharaq-Al-Aqsah (Egypt), while the maximum and minimum chromium concentrations were 5.25 and 15.75 µgKg−1 in Al-Madinah (Saudi) and Sharaq-Al-Aqsah (Egypt), respectively.
In Al-Madinah (Saudi Arabia) and Al-Dastoor (Egypt), however, the concentration of chromium in pictures ranged from 6.87 to 18.76 µgKg−1, with an average of 11.21 µgKg−1. The results of this investigation showed that the concentration of chromium in all trash newspapers was lower than Skrzydlewska et al. recommendations although not by much (Table 2) Figure (1, 2, 3) .
The presence of nickel in waste newspapers has been attributed to the use of green dyes and inks in the sources of the waste newspaper when recycled paper is used as a raw material, as well as the use of green components in the coloring of new recycled paper products, and it is considered an important human toxin with cancer-causing potential [38, 39].
According to the findings of this study, nickel concentration for light fonts ranged from 2.79 to 10.71 µgKg−1 in Al-Akhbar (Egypt) and Al-Madinah (Saudi), with an average concentration of 5.55 µgKg−1 (Table 2). While the maximum and minimum concentrations nickel concentrations in bold fonts for Al-Madinah (Saudi) and Al-Akhbar (Egypt), respectively, ranged from 3.65 to 13.05 µgKg−1, with the average 7.86 µgKg−1, In Al-Madinah (Saudi Arabia) and Al-Akhbar (Egypt), on the other hand, the concentration of nickel in pictures ranged from 4.54 to 15.70 µgKg−1, with an average concentration of(9.40 µgKg−1 (Table 2).There is no information available in previous literature about the maximum permissible levels of nickel. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a maximum daily dose of 100-300 µg for nickel, so, according to WHO, the level of nickel present in the samples is considered not harmful for health [40, 36].
The nickel contents found in this investigation are lower than the suggested limit levels in food legislation and certain published studies [29, 30, 33]. As a result, the presence of nickel in newspapers could be related to the presence of several colorants in the wastepaper pulp (Table 2) Fingers (1, 2, 3) .
Pb in newspapers could come from white inks, red pigments, yellow, and green hue [41, 42]. According to the current findings, the maximum and minimum concentrations of lead for light fonts were found in the Al-Watan (Egypt) and Al-Dastoor (Egypt) newspapers, 2.96 and 10.21 µgKg−1 respectively, with the average concentration 5.01 µgKg−1, as indicated in Table 2. The readings were typically lower than the permissible levels 3 mgKg−1, according to 94/62/EC (European Parliament and Council Directive 2015), and they were consistent with the literature [30, 31].
For bold fonts, the average lead concentration was 5.01 and 7.07 µgKg-1, with the maximum and minimum concentrations 4.27 and 13.42 µgKg-1 in Al-Watan (Egypt) and Al-Dastoor (Egypt). The level of lead in all newspapers was within permissible limits, according to Directive 94/62/EC (European Parliament and Council Directive 2015), but it was rather high in bold fonts compared to light fonts .
As indicated in Table 2, the level of lead in pictures in the Akhbar-Al-Youm (Egypt) and Sharq-Al-Aqsah (Egypt) newspapers ranged from 18.28 to 6.02 µgKg-1, with an average concentration of (5.42 µgKg-1). When compared to other newspapers, the content of lead in Akhbar-Al-Youm (Egypt) was high, but less than the maximum 3 mg µgKg-1 set by Directive 94/62/EC . The elevated amounts of lead were thought to be due to the pigments and coating components employed in the coating and similar coloring methods to achieve these color values . All samples are below the cutoff limits 3 Kg-1, according to Table 2. Based on contact paper and the authorized temporary weekly intake of lead of 25 µgKg-1 body weight  lead migration demonstrates that human exposure was within safe levels (Table 2) Figure (1, 2, 3).
Aluminum in waste newspapers comes from aluminum sulfate, aluminum chloride hydroxide, aluminum format, aluminum nitrate, and sodium aluminum components used as precipitants, stabilizers, and paper production chemicals to improve the paper's and paperboard's overall product and surface attributes .
Aluminum concentration in light font newspapers samples ranged from 2.37 to 4.65 mgKg−1 in Al-Madinah (Saudi) and Arab News (Saudi), with an average concentration of 3.44 mgKg−1, according to Table 2. While the maximum and minimum aluminum concentration in bold fonts for Al-Akhbar (Egypt) and Al-Dastoor (Egypt), respectively, ranged from 4.06 to 8.56 mgKg−1, with the average 5.73 mgKg−1.
On the other hand, in Indian newspapers and Arab News (Saudi), the concentration of aluminum in pictures ranged from 6.51 to 9.59 mgKg−1, with an average concentration of 8.17 mgKg−1, according to Table 2. The amount of aluminum generated in waste newspapers under test is smaller than the structural ones, according to Directive 2005/20/EC environmental management standard, Table 2, Figure (1, 2, 3) .
Zinc oxide or zinc sulfate compounds are sometimes used in paper manufacture, with zinc sulfate being used to boost the opacity of sheets and zinc oxide being used to make copying paper . Zinc is also utilized in fine art, and when using white pigments to achieve good luminosity in other colors and to apply metallic hues, the amount of zinc can be increased. Metal embroidery, along with copper and aluminum, has other applications, such as engraving on various packaging .
The maximum and minimum zinc concentrations, as well as the average zinc concentrations in newspaper samples, were 0.11, 0.33, and 0.19 mgKg−1 for Al-Akhbar (Egypt), Al-Madinah (Saudi), and Indian newspapers, respectively. Zinc concentrations did not above the maximum limit amount 50 mgKg−1 set by Irvine .
In bold fonts, the average zinc concentration was 0.19 and 0.27 mgKg−1, with the maximum and minimum 0.15 and 0.68 mgKg−1 in Al-Ahram (Egypt) and Al-Dastoor (Egypt), respectively. Zinc concentrations did not above the maximum restriction level 50 mgKg−1 set by the European paper and board food packaging chain. Table 2 shows that zinc levels in all newspaper samples were within normal ranges, but that bold fonts had higher zinc levels than light fonts .
The zinc concentration in the Al-Dastoor (Egypt) newspaper photo and the India newspaper photo was 0.18 and 0.74 mgKg−1, respectively, with an average 0.39 mgKg−1. When compared to other newspapers, Indian newspapers had a high zinc concentration, but it was lower than the recommended limit suggested by the (EPA, 1996) legislation 50 mgKg−1 . Although zinc contains fluorescence and many other comparable sources in filler and coloring materials, many of these additions do not appear to be present in the wastepaper that makes up paper pulp.