One of the causes of damage in cold area projects is the freeze-thaw cycling action, which causes large changes in soil strength, resulting in soil deformation and destroying its soil stability. In order to investigate the effect of water content on the mechanical parameters of red clay soil under the action of freeze-thaw cycles, the solidification undrained triaxial test and consolidation test were carried out with red clay soil in Changzhi area, Shanxi Province, as the research object. The test results show that the stress-strain curve is hardening curve, with the increase of water content, the maximum shear stress, cohesion, internal friction angle, elastic modulus, compression modulus and shear modulus are decreasing, and Poisson ratio is gradually increasing. The mechanical parameters of 0 freeze-thaw cycles are greater than 12 freeze-thaw cycles. With the increase in water content, the difference in shear stress between two freeze-thaw cycles was decreasing under the same circumferential pressure. 0 freeze-thaw cycles, the decreasing trend of cohesion increased from 4.48% to 35.88%, and the elastic modulus decreased up to 69.61%. 12 freeze-thaw cycles, the decreasing trend of cohesion decreased from 65.38% to 5.93%, and the elastic modulus showed a linear decreasing relationship. The decreasing trend of the internal friction angle remained consistent with the gradual increase. The Poisson ratio was 0.21-0.29 and 0.24-0.31 for the two cycles, respectively. The shear modulus at 0 freeze-thaw cycles was 1.86-1.16 times higher than that at 12 freeze-thaw cycles, and the difference decreased gradually with the increase in water content. The increase in water content made the soil more prone to shear deformation.