In the present study, we have investigated the sensing and detection mechanism of refractive index for extracellular vesicles from various EV samples by using the conventional and mirror image 1D defective photonic crystal designs. The transfer matrix method has been used to analyze the transmission properties of both structures at normal incidence. The performance of the proposed designs have been verified by measuring the shift in position of the defect mode inside PBGs of respective structures depending upon the change in refractive index of various EV samples and also by comparing the observed data with the experimentally available standard data. Moreover mirror image 1D defective PC design found suitable to be used as an alternative of 1D APC without defect with air core in which propagation of electromagnetic waves is along the radial direction. Finally we have compared the sensing and detection features of both designs made up of a conventional and mirror image 1D defective PCs. It has been noticed that the mirror image defective structure provides a narrow transmission peak of 100% inside the PBG. This remarkable feature of mirror image photonic sensing design may be utilized to develop various sensors ofwith high sensitivity, large values of FOM & Q factors and low LOD values. Such high performance bio-sensor with better achievements may be very useful in chemical and biological detection.