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Research article

The dishwasher rubber seal acts as a reservoir of bacteria in the home environment

Jerneja Zupančič, Martina Turk, Miha Črnigoj, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Nina Gunde-Cimerman
DOI: 10.21203/rs.2.10992/v2

Abstract

Bacteria that colonise the extreme environment of household dishwasher rubber seals were investigated using cultivation-dependent and metagenomic approaches. All 30 dishwashers investigated were colonised by various bacteria. Cultivation approaches resulted in 632 bacterial isolates in total, belonging to four phyla, eight classes, 40 genera and 74 species. The majority were Gram-positive, as solely Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Bacilli represented half of the Gram-positive isolates, and were dominated by the Bacillus cereus group. Gammaproteobacteria were primarily represented by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. All isolates were tested for resistance to seven selected antibiotics. Metagenomic assessment of the bacterial biodiversity of the dishwasher rubber seals confirmed the predominance of Gram-positive bacteria, as primarily Actinobacteria dominated by Gordonia, followed by Proteobacteria dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and by pathogenic species such as Escherichia sp., Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Enterobacter sp.. Metagenomic assessment of bacterial biodiversity in the tap water connected to dishwashers revealed predominance of Gram-negative bacteria, and in particular Proteobacteria, dominated by Betaproteobacteria, mainly represented by Tepidimonas sp.. Both Actinobacteria and Firmicutes showed low numbers, while there were markedly more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in the tap water. These data indicate that colonisation of dishwasher rubber seals depends primarily on the bacterial input from the dirty vessels, and much less on the bacteria in the tap water.

Keywords
kitchen, dishwasher, bacteria, antibiotic resistence, tap water

Figures

Background

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

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References

Table 1

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Preprint: Please note that this article has not completed peer review.
Research article

The dishwasher rubber seal acts as a reservoir of bacteria in the home environment

Jerneja Zupančič, Martina Turk, Miha Črnigoj, Jerneja Ambrožič Avguštin, Nina Gunde-Cimerman

STATUS: In Review

Comments: 0
PDF Downloads: 0
HTML Views: 29

Integrity Check:

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  • Peer Review Timeline

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Abstract

Bacteria that colonise the extreme environment of household dishwasher rubber seals were investigated using cultivation-dependent and metagenomic approaches. All 30 dishwashers investigated were colonised by various bacteria. Cultivation approaches resulted in 632 bacterial isolates in total, belonging to four phyla, eight classes, 40 genera and 74 species. The majority were Gram-positive, as solely Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Bacilli represented half of the Gram-positive isolates, and were dominated by the Bacillus cereus group. Gammaproteobacteria were primarily represented by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. All isolates were tested for resistance to seven selected antibiotics. Metagenomic assessment of the bacterial biodiversity of the dishwasher rubber seals confirmed the predominance of Gram-positive bacteria, as primarily Actinobacteria dominated by Gordonia, followed by Proteobacteria dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and by pathogenic species such as Escherichia sp., Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Enterobacter sp.. Metagenomic assessment of bacterial biodiversity in the tap water connected to dishwashers revealed predominance of Gram-negative bacteria, and in particular Proteobacteria, dominated by Betaproteobacteria, mainly represented by Tepidimonas sp.. Both Actinobacteria and Firmicutes showed low numbers, while there were markedly more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in the tap water. These data indicate that colonisation of dishwasher rubber seals depends primarily on the bacterial input from the dirty vessels, and much less on the bacteria in the tap water.

Figures

Background

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

Declarations

References

Table 1

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