- Cities are complex systems that need integrated approaches to understand their characteristics and to identify challenges and opportunities for sustainable development.
- Context-based and tailored solutions are required for achieving SDGs and developing circular flows. This is particularly important in the Global South.
- Integrated and cross-sectoral planning and collaboration are necessary to improve the development of sustainable strategies and interventions to reduce trade-offs. Areas like the Greater Cairo Region in Egypt demonstrate the complexities of action across formal/informal sectors of waste management.