The current study tried to find any correlation between obesity, lipid profile, serum insulin, and PUD. There was no correlation in this matter although many studies declare and some regret such a relationship. Studies believe that increased serum lipids or atherogenic lipid profiles may be resulted by infections and consequent inflammatory reactions in the body but there is no performance to investigate this relationship directly between PUD and lipid profile (9).
In 2019, Pyo et al. published an article following a study focused on obesity and PUD among more than 32,000 through a big cohort between 2005 and 2017. They found that obesity did not correlate with a gastric ulcer when adjusted for smoking habits, physical activity, alcohol intake, fasting blood sugar, TG, HDL, LDL, H. pylori status, and some medications. This was while duodenal ulcer had a lower rate in obese patients than in non-obese individuals. (10) Valenkevich et al. studied serum insulin and C-peptide in healthy people and patients with duodenal ulcer in 1990 in Russia to explain that the named hormones rise in the named condition (11) but our work included all types of gastric ulcers resulting in nothing to report in this regard. A decade later, Babalich et al. indicated that insulin level had increased in PUD patients before surgery experiencing a dramatic reduction after repair surgery among 74 cases in Russia. (12)
It seems there is a force need to a cohort to follow up PUD patients while monitoring life style, BMI, lipid profile and insulin like what Haidychuk et al. reported in Ukraine in 1996 studying 120 duodenal ulcer patients to find age-related changes in some hormones such as gastrin, insulin, and glucagon beside gastric mucosal layer (13) when the patients were treated. Despite similar findings to our results in terms of gastric and gastroduodenal ulcer in males, Cheng et al. reported in 2000 that men with duodenal ulcers got rid of their ulcers after increased physical exercise and reduced BMI in Texas, US. (14) Participants’ BMIs showed a few unexpected hints in Fig. 3 through which diagram A illustrates almost all the underweighted individuals were in the group without PUD. In this regard, diagram B of the same figure indicates an increased frequency of PUD in participants with normal weight; although it may be due to a higher number of participants in that weight category.
In a prominent work in 2014, more than 47 thousand of patients were studied by Boylan et al. in the United States to find a total number of 600 PUD cases to be assessed for central obesity and global obesity to suggest that any shape of obesity correlated with increased risk of PUD, especially gastric ulcer as well as H. pylori-negative ones. (1) Several studies indicated that genetic characteristics of the microorganisms existing in the human gastrointestinal tract are in a relationship with nutrition and obesity while affecting on hormonal paths, insulin resistance, and fatty tissue aggregation in the body which was also raised in mice by Ding et al. in 2010 (4, 15–18)