During past decades, spectroscopic techniques find wide range of applications ranging from biological applications to the measurement of chemical composition and characterization of variety of substances i.e., polymers, nanocomposites etc. Nanocomposites are emerging and growing materials having wide variety of uses. To study the characteristic properties, characterize, and development of new materials using polymer nanocomposites, several molecular characterization techniques are available and are in use today. Principle objective of this review is to summarize the knowledge in current characterization techniques and to study the applications of fluorescence, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared, besides Raman molecular characterization techniques for characterization of polymers, filler, and composites. Fluorescence technique did not provide detailed analysis of materials while solid-state NMR spectroscopy determine silanol hydroxyl groups at the silica exterior in addition to their interactions with polymer and polymer-filler interfacial interactions (via relaxation time). For characterization of various kinds of functional groups in polymer/ fillers, infrared spectroscopy employed. While Raman spectroscopy finds extensive applications for analysis of carbon-based materials. Novelty of this review is that till yet very few review papers have been published which briefly describe all these mentioned techniques along their applications in a very simple and an effective way.