Background: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is the most common spinal vascular shunt lesion. Although pathological changes in the SDAVF draining vein (SDAVF-DV) have been elucidated, protein changes remain enigmatic. We investigated protein changes in the SDAVF-DV.
Methods: Three SDAVF-DV samples were collected, and superficial temporal artery (STA) and superficial temporal vein (STV) samples were used as controls. After quantification and enzymolysis of the proteins, label-free quantitative proteomics was performed, and the peptide mixture was fractionated and analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed proteins was also performed using Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analyses.
Results: Compared with the STA, the SDAVF-DV had 195 upregulated proteins and 303 downregulated proteins. GO analysis showed that the most differential GO terms in each category were the adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signalling pathway, U6 snRNP and SH3 domain binding. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the most differentially expressed protein pathway was focal adhesion. Compared with the STV, the SDAVF-DV had 158 upregulated proteins and 362 downregulated proteins. GO analysis showed that the most differential GO terms in each category were lamellipodium assembly, U6 snRNP, and SH3 domain binding. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the most differentially expressed protein pathway was dilated cardiomyopathy. The PPI analysis revealed PPIs among the top 300 proteins.
Conclusions: We demonstrated that the SDAVF-DV showed specific protein expression changes under long-period venous hypertension. The results of the present study will provide insights into the pathogenesis of SDAVF formation at the protein level. The proteomic results provide a scientific foundation for further study to explore the pathophysiological mechanism of SDAVF.