Background: Myelin oligodendrocytes develop from migratory and proliferative human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (hOPCs), which express typical marker proteins and lipids. It is well known that NG2 and A2B5 are important biological markers of hOPCs. Yet, the differences in myelination ability between the two cell lineages have not been studied in depth. The sequence of expression of NG2 and A2B5 during the development of hOPCs is also controversial.
Methods: Using cell sorting technology, we obtained a large number of sterile, high-purity NG2+/-, A2B5+/- cells with high viability. Further research was then conducted via in vitro cell proliferation and migration assays, single-cell sequencing, mRNA sequencing, and cell transplantation into shiverer mice.
Results: The results showed that the ability of cell migration and proliferation of the four groups of cells from high to low was: A2B5->NG2->NG2+>A2B5+. The ability for oligodendrocyte differentiation from high to low was: NG2->A2B5->A2B5+>NG2+.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the migration ability of the cells was inversely proportional to their myelination ability. NG2 may be a marker of early oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, and is conducive to cell migration and proliferation, while A2B5 may be a marker of slightly mature oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and is conducive to cell differentiation. The migration, proliferation, and myelination capacities of the negative cell population were stronger than those of the positive cell population. In summary, these results suggest that oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the mid-stage may be most suitable for clinical cell transplantation to treat demyelinating diseases.