Fetal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) predisposes children to future health complications including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. A key mechanism by which these complications occur is through stress-induced dysfunction of vascular progenitor cells, including endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs). Although several approaches have been previously explored to restore endothelial dysfunction, their widespread adoption remains tampered by systemic side effects of adjuvant drugs and their limited efficacy. Here, we report a strategy to rejuvenate circulating vascular progenitor cells by conjugation of drug-loaded liposomal nanoparticles directly to the surface of GDM-exposed ECFCs (GDM-ECFCs). Bioactive nanoparticles can be robustly conjugated to the surface of ECFCs without altering cell viability and key progenitor phenotypes. Moreover, controlled delivery of therapeutic drugs to vascular progenitor cells is able to normalize transgelin (TAGLN) expression and improve cell migration, which is a critical key step in establishing functional vascular networks. More importantly, sustained pseudo-autocrine stimulation with bioactive nanoparticles is able to improve in vitro and in vivo vasculogenesis of GDM-ECFCs. Collectively, these findings highlight a simple, yet promising strategy to rejuvenate GDM-ECFCs and improve their therapeutic potential, which can be clinically-translated to address various cardiovascular complications, as well as toward a range of approaches in regenerative medicine.