Based on the Lagrange equation, the motion equation of a rod fastened rotor-bearing system considering the damping of the contact interface is established. The numerical method is employed for numerical analysis. The bifurcation diagram, time series, frequency waveform, phase spectrum and Poincare map are used to illustrate the nonlinear dynamic behaviour. The transient responses during acceleration and deceleration are calculated to reveal the dynamic behaviour of the system. The numerical results hold that since the oil film is nonlinear, the system presents obvious bistable behaviour and a jumping phenomenon. In addition, a test bench of the rod fastened rotor-bearing system is built. The bistable behaviour and jumping phenomenon are experimentally proven, and the effect of the eccentric distance of the rotor on the bistable behaviour is experimentally explored. The results of this paper can be used for the basic design and fault diagnosis of rod fastened rotors.