1 Brown, P. N., Lund, J. A. & Murch, S. J. A botanical, phytochemical and ethnomedicinal review of the genus Mitragyna korth: Implications for products sold as kratom. J Ethnopharmacol 202, 302-325 (2017).
2 Sukrong, S. et al. Molecular analysis of the genus Mitragyna existing in Thailand based on rDNA ITS sequences and its application to identify a narcotic species: Mitragyna speciosa. Biol Pharm Bull 30, 1284-1288 (2007).
3 Puff, C., Chayamarit, K. & Chamchumroon, V. Rubiaceae of Thailand: A pictorial guide to indigenous and cultivated genera. (Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, 2005).
4 Jansen, K. L. & Prast, C. J. Psychoactive properties of mitragynine (kratom). J Psychoact Drugs 20, 455-457 (1988).
5 Singh, D., Narayanan, S. & Vicknasingam, B. Traditional and non-traditional uses of Mitragynine (Kratom): a survey of the literature. Brain Res Bull 126, 41-46 (2016).
6 Saingam, D., Assanangkornchai, S., Geater, A. F. & Balthip, Q. Pattern and consequences of krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) use among male villagers in southern Thailand: a qualitative study. Int J Drug Policy 24, 351-358 (2013).
7 Vicknasingam, B., Narayanan, S., Beng, G. T. & Mansor, S. M. The informal use of ketum (Mitragyna speciosa) for opioid withdrawal in the northern states of peninsular Malaysia and implications for drug substitution therapy. Int J Drug Policy 21, 283-288 (2010).
8 Suwanlert, S. A study of kratom eaters in Thailand. Bull Narc 27, 21-27 (1975).
9 Cinosi, E. et al. Following “the roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): the evolution of an enhancer from a traditional use to increase work and productivity in Southeast Asia to a recreational psychoactive drug in western countries. Biomed Res Int 2015 (2015).
10 Hassan, Z. et al. From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 37, 138-151 (2013).
11 Kumarnsit, E., Keawpradub, N. & Nuankaew, W. Effect of Mitragyna speciosa aqueous extract on ethanol withdrawal symptoms in mice. Fitoterapia 78, 182-185 (2007).
12 Parthasarathy, S. et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous, methanolic and alkaloid extracts from Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae family) leaves. Molecules 14, 3964-3974 (2009).
13 Basiliere, S., Bryand, K. & Kerrigan, S. Identification of five Mitragyna alkaloids in urine using liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 1080, 11-19 (2018).
14 Le, D., Goggin, M. M. & Janis, G. C. Analysis of mitragynine and metabolites in human urine for detecting the use of the psychoactive plant kratom. J Anal Toxicol 36, 616-625 (2012).
15 Raffa, R. B. Kratom and other mitragynines: the chemistry and pharmacology of opioids from a non-opium source. (CRC Press, 2014).
16 Assanangkornchai, S., Muekthong, A., Sam-Angsri, N. & Pattanasattayawong, U. The use of Mitragynine speciosa (“Krathom”), an addictive plant, in Thailand. Subst Use Misuse 42, 2145-2157 (2007).
17 Bangkok Post. Kratom leaves: Are they really a dangerous drug?. www.bangkokpost.com/news/special-reports/681964/the-curse-and-cure-of-kratom. Accessed 19th October 2020
18 Kumar, S. J., Tungphatthong, C. & Sukrong, S. Mitigating the impact of admixtures in Thai herbal products. Front Pharmacol 10, 1205 (2019).
19 Ballin, N. Z., Onaindia, J. O., Jawad, H., Fernandez-Carazo, R. & Maquet, A. High-resolution melting of multiple barcode amplicons for plant species authentication. Food control 105, 141-150 (2019).
20 Srirama, R. et al. Species adulteration in the herbal trade: causes, consequences and mitigation. Drug Saf 40, 651-661 (2017).
21 Zhang, X. & Organization, W. H. Traditional medicine strategy 2002 2005. (2002).
22 Parmentier, I. et al. How effective are DNA barcodes in the identification of African rainforest trees? PLoS One 8, e54921 (2013).
23 Fadzil, N. F., Wagiran, A., Mohd Salleh, F., Abdullah, S. & Mohd Izham, N. H. Authenticity testing and detection of Eurycoma longifolia in commercial herbal products using bar-high resolution melting analysis. Genes 9, 408 (2018).
24 Lagiotis, G. et al. Detection and quantification of cashew in commercial tea products using High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis. J Food Sci (2020).
25 Thongkhao, K., Tungphatthong, C., Phadungcharoen, T. & Sukrong, S. The use of plant DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis to differentiate edible vegetables from poisonous plants for food safety. Food Control 109, 106896 (2020).
26 Tanguay, P. Kratom in Thailand: decriminalisation and community control? Series on legislative reform of drug policies No. 13, Transnational Institute. International Drug Policy Consortium (IPDC) (2011).
27 Ahmad, K. & Aziz, Z. Mitragyna speciosa use in the northern states of Malaysia: a cross-sectional study. J Ethnopharmacol 141, 446-450 (2012).
28 Hollingsworth, P. M., Graham, S. W. & Little, D. P. Choosing and using a plant DNA barcode. PLoS One 6, e19254 (2011).
29 Guo, M., Ren, L. & Pang, X. Inspecting the true identity of herbal materials from Cynanchum using ITS2 barcode. Front Plant Sci 8, 1945 (2017).
30 Sun, W., Li, J.-j., Xiong, C., Zhao, B. & Chen, S.-l. The potential power of Bar-HRM technology in herbal medicine identification. Front Plant Sci 7, 367 (2016).
31 Klafke, G. M. et al. High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis for detection of SNPs associated with pyrethroid resistance in the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 9, 100-111 (2019).
32 Reed, G. H. & Wittwer, C. T. Sensitivity and specificity of single-nucleotide polymorphism scanning by high-resolution melting analysis. Clin Chem 50, 1748-1754 (2004).
33 Singtonat, S. & Osathanunkul, M. Fast and reliable detection of toxic Crotalaria spectabilis Roth. in Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. herbal products using DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med 15, 162 (2015).
34 Kalivas, A. et al. DNA barcode ITS2 coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for taxonomic identification of Sideritis species growing in Greece. Mol Biol Rep 41, 5147-5155 (2014).
35 Xanthopoulou, A. et al. Multiplex HRM analysis as a tool for rapid molecular authentication of nine herbal teas. Food Control 60, 113-116 (2016).
36 Song, M., Li, J., Xiong, C., Liu, H. & Liang, J. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species. Sci Rep 6, 34133 (2016).
37 Osathanunkul, M., Osathanunkul, K., Wongwanakul, S., Osathanunkul, R. & Madesis, P. Multiuse of Bar-HRM for Ophiocordyceps sinensis identification and authentication. Sci Rep 8, 1-6 (2018).
38 Jaipaew, J., Padungchareon, T. & Sukrong, S. PCR-reverse dot blot of the nucleotide signature sequences of matK for the identification of Mitragyna speciosa, a narcotic species. Plant Gene 14, 46-54 (2018).
39 Kumar, S., Stecher, G. & Tamura, K. MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33, 1870-1874 (2016).
40 CFX Manager software of Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc. (Hercules, CA, USA) (2020).