Technologies that capture the complex electrical dynamics occurring in biological systems, across fluid membranes and at solid-liquid interfaces drive fundamental understanding and innovation in diverse fields from neuroscience to energy storage. However, the capabilities of existing voltage imaging techniques utilizing micro-electrode arrays, scanning probes, or optical fluorescence methods are respectively limited by resolution, scan speed, and photostability. Here we develop an optoelectronic voltage imaging system which overcomes these limitations by using charge-sensitive fluorescent reporters embedded within a transparent semiconducting diamond device. Electrochemical tuning of the diamond surface termination enables photostable optical voltage imaging with a quantitative linear response at biologically relevant voltages and timescales. This technology represents a major step toward label-free, large-scale, and long-term voltage recording of physical and biological systems with sub-micron resolution.