Objective The aim of this study was to explore the correlation and difference of influencing factors by analyzing the psychological status of patients with cervical precancerous lesions and cancer in Han and Ethnic minorities. So as to provide evidence for more targeted psychological intervention for categories types of patients. Methods 200 Han patients with cervical lesions and 100 Ethnic minority patients in Yunnan cancer center were investigated with the Chinese version of Kessler 10 Scale. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test, analysis of variance, and multivariable linear regression. Results There was no significant difference in the distribution of demographic characteristics between the two groups (P>0.05).The results of univariate analysis showed that the impression of K10 score was statistically significant among the following factors: educational level, awareness of HPV vaccine, disease screening status, employee medical insurance, economic burden of disease, cancerous or not, pathological type, treatment modalities, marital status, and family genetic history of tumor (P<0.05).Among them, the marital status had opposite effects on the two groups of patients. The mean score of married Han patients were higher than those of Han patients with other marital status, but the score of Ethnic minority patients the opposite. Multivariate analysis indicates that the economic burden of the disease, occupation, and family genetic history of tumor had a greater impact on the total score of Han patients among many factors, accounting for a total of 8.1% (Adj=0.081).Treatment modalities had the greatest effect on the scores of ethnic minority patients, accounting for 8.4%(Adj=0.084). Conclusion The factors affecting the psychological status of patients between the two groups have similarities and differences. Multifactorial analysis showed that the main factors affecting the psychology of Han patients were: economic burden caused by the disease, occupation, and family genetic history of tumor; while the main factors affecting the psychology of minority patients were: treatment modalities. Therefore, targeted recommendations and policy measures can be proposed respectively. We should not only increase the publicity of disease-related knowledge, but also call on all women to receive vaccines and regular screening of women in the high incidence age group. It is also necessary to positively guide patients with higher education level and give more encouragement and spiritual support to patients with family genetic history of tumor and heavy economic burden of the disease. The effect of marital relationship on patients cannot be neglected at the same time. More targeted psychological intervention and more favorable treatment modalities should be provided for patients.