The design of hydrogels where multiple interpenetrating networks enable enhanced mechanical properties could benefit applications such as biomedical products, 3D printing, and soft robotics. We report a class of self-reinforced homocomposite hydrogels (HHGs) comprised of interpenetrating networks of multiscale hierarchy. A molecular alginate gel is reinforced by a colloidal network of hierarchically branched soft dendritic colloids (SDCs), which are also made of alginate. The reinforcement of the molecular gel with the nanofibrillar SDC network of the same biopolymer results in a remarkable increase of the HHG mechanical properties. The viscoelastic HHGs show >3× larger storage modulus and >4× larger Young's modulus than either constitutive network at the same concentration. Such synergistically enforced colloidal-molecular HHGs open numerous opportunities for formulation of biocompatible gels with robust structure-property relationships. Balance of the ratio of their precursors facilitates precise control of the yield stress and rate of self-reinforcement, enabling HHG 3D printing by extrusion.