1. al Tehewy MM, Amin GE, Nassar NW. A study of rate and predictors of fall among elderly patients in a university hospital. Journal of patient safety. 2015;11(4):210-4.
2. de Souza AB, Maestri RN, Röhsig V, Lorenzini E, Alves BM, Oliveira D, et al. In-hospital falls in a large hospital in the south of Brazil: A 6-year retrospective study. Applied Nursing Research. 2019;48:81-7.
3. Oliver D, Healey F, Haines TP. Preventing falls and fall-related injuries in hospitals. Clinics in geriatric medicine. 2010;26(4):645-92.
4. Venema DM, Skinner AM, Nailon R, Conley D, High R, Jones KJ. Patient and system factors associated with unassisted and injurious falls in hospitals: an observational study. BMC geriatrics. 2019;19(1):1-10.
5. Zhao Y, Kim H. Older adult inpatient falls in acute care hospitals: intrinsic, extrinsic, and environmental factors. Journal of gerontological nursing. 2015;41(7):29-43.
6. Hitcho EB, Krauss MJ, Birge S, Claiborne Dunagan W, Fischer I, Johnson S, et al. Characteristics and circumstances of falls in a hospital setting: a prospective analysis. Journal of general internal medicine. 2004;19(7):732-9.
7. Murray GR, Cameron ID, Cumming RG. The consequences of falls in acute and subacute hospitals in Australia that cause proximal femoral fractures. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2007;55(4):577-82.
8. Guirguis-Blake JM, Michael YL, Perdue LA, Coppola EL, Beil TL. Interventions to prevent falls in older adults: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Jama. 2018;319(16):1705-16.
9. Krauss MJ, Nguyen SL, Dunagan WC, Birge S, Costantinou E, Johnson S, et al. Circumstances of patient falls and injuries in 9 hospitals in a midwestern healthcare system. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2007;28(5):544-50.
10. Tucker SJ, Bieber PL, Attlesey‐Pries JM, Olson ME, Dierkhising RA. Outcomes and challenges in implementing hourly rounds to reduce falls in orthopedic units. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing. 2012;9(1):18-29.
11. Wilkinson A, Meikle N, Law P, Yong HJ, Butler P, Kim J, et al. How older adults and their informal carers prevent falls: An integrative review of the literature. International journal of nursing studies. 2018;82:13-9.
12. Miake-Lye IM, Hempel S, Ganz DA, Shekelle PG. Inpatient fall prevention programs as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review. Annals of internal medicine. 2013;158(5_Part_2):390-6.
13. AIHW. Australia's Health 2018 ; Australia's Health Series No. 16. Australian Institute of Health Welfare, Cat. No. AUS 221: Canberra: AIHW; 2018.
14. Morello RT, Barker AL, Watts JJ, Haines T, Zavarsek SS, Hill KD, et al. The extra resource burden of in‐hospital falls: a cost of falls study. Medical journal of Australia. 2015;203(9):367-.
15. Sweeney R, Meade R, Wold C. Injury matters: Western Australian falls report 2019. Perth, WA: WA Department of Health; 2019.
16. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Preventing falls and harm from falls in older people. Best practice uidelines for Australian hospitals. Sydney, NSW: Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Available on https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/publications-and-resources/resource-library/preventing-falls-and-harm-falls-older-people-residential-aged-care-facilities-falls-facts-nurses-best-practice-guidelines-australian-hospitals-2009 Accessed on 16 September 2021; 2009.
17. Severo IM, Almeida MdA, Kuchenbecker R, Vieira DFVB, Weschenfelder ME, Pinto LRC, et al. Risk factors for falls in hospitalized adult patients: an integrative review. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP. 2014;48:540-54.
18. Department of Health Western Australia. Clinical Incident Management Guideline. Perth: Patient Safety Surveillance Unit, Patient Safety and Clinical Quality, Clinical Excellence Division: Availale at: https://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/-/media/Files/Corporate/Policy-Frameworks/Clinical-Governance-Safety-and-Quality/Policy/Clinical-Incident-Management-Policy-2019/Supporting/Clinical-Incident-Management-Guideline-2019.pdf. Accessed August 28, 2020; 2019.
19. Team RC. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. 2013.
20. Carroll N. Oglmx: Estimation of Ordered Generalized Linear Models. R package version 220.127.116.11. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=oglmx , Accessed on 15 September 20212018.
21. Pi H-Y, Gao Y, Wang J, Hu M-M, Nie D, Peng P-P. Risk factors for in-hospital complications of fall-related fractures among older Chinese: a retrospective study. BioMed research international. 2016;2016.
22. Kim J, Kim S, Park J, Lee E. Multilevel factors influencing falls of patients in hospital: The impact of nurse staffing. Journal of nursing management. 2019;27(5):1011-9.
23. Timsina LR, Willetts JL, Brennan MJ, Marucci-Wellman H, Lombardi DA, Courtney TK, et al. Circumstances of fall-related injuries by age and gender among community-dwelling adults in the United States. PLoS one. 2017;12(5):e0176561.
24. Johansson J, Nordström A, Nordström P. Greater fall risk in elderly women than in men is associated with increased gait variability during multitasking. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2016;17(6):535-40.
25. El-Menyar A, Tilley E, Al-Thani H, Latifi R. Females fall more from heights but males survive less among a geriatric population: insights from an American level 1 trauma center. BMC geriatrics. 2019;19(1):1-8.
26. Chang VC, Do MT. Risk factors for falls among seniors: implications of gender. American journal of epidemiology. 2015;181(7):521-31.
27. Ko S-u, Tolea MI, Hausdorff JM, Ferrucci L. Sex-specific differences in gait patterns of healthy older adults: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Journal of biomechanics. 2011;44(10):1974-9.
28. McKean KA, Landry SC, Hubley-Kozey CL, Dunbar MJ, Stanish WD, Deluzio KJ. Gender differences exist in osteoarthritic gait. Clinical Biomechanics. 2007;22(4):400-9.
29. Wiedemeijer M, Otten E. Effects of high heeled shoes on gait. A review. Gait & posture. 2018;61:423-30.
30. Pannell SL, MD U. The postural and biomechanical effects of high heel shoes: A literature review. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2012.
31. Khadka J, Lang C, Ratcliffe J, Corlis M, Wesselingh S, Whitehead C, et al. Trends in the utilisation of aged care services in Australia, 2008–2016. BMC geriatrics. 2019;19(1):1-9.
32. McCann M, Donnelly M, O'Reilly D. Gender differences in care home admission risk: partner's age explains the higher risk for women. Age and Ageing. 2012;41(3):416-9.
33. Tzeng H-M, Yin C-Y. Toileting-related inpatient falls in adult acute care settings. Medsurg Nurs. 2012;21(6):372-7.
34. Powell-Cope G, Campbell R, Hahm B, Bulat T, Westphal J. Sociotechnical probabilistic risk modeling to predict injurious falls in community living centers. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 2016;53(6).
35. Hignett S, Sands G, Griffiths P. In-patient falls: what can we learn from incident reports? Age and ageing. 2013;42(4):527-31.
36. Kobayashi K, Ando K, Suzuki Y, Inagaki Y, Nagao Y, Ishiguro N, et al. Characteristics of outpatient falls that occurred in hospital. Nagoya journal of medical science. 2018;80(3):417.
37. Janse van Rensburg R. Factors influencing patient falls in a private hospital group in the Cape Metropole of the Western Cape 2019.
38. Jørgensen TSH, Hansen A, Sahlberg M, Gislason G, Torp‐Pedersen C, Andersson C, et al. Nationwide time trends and risk factors for in‐hospital falls‐related major injuries. International journal of clinical practice. 2015;69(6):703-9.
39. van Poelgeest E, Pronk A, Rhebergen D, van der Velde N. Depression, antidepressants and fall risk: therapeutic dilemmas—a clinical review. European geriatric medicine. 2021:1-12.
40. Byers AL, Sheeran T, Mlodzianowski AE, Meyers BS, Nassisi P, Bruce ML. Depression and risk for adverse falls in older home health care patients. Research in gerontological nursing. 2008;1(4):245-51.
41. Erlandson KM, Zhang L, Ng DK, Althoff KN, Palella FJ. Risk Factors for Falls, Falls with Injury, and Falls with Fracture Among Older Men with or at Risk for HIV Infection. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2019;81(4):e117.
42. Wong H, Heuberger R, Logomarsino J, Hewlings S. Associations between alcohol use, polypharmacy and falls in older adults. Nursing older people. 2016;28(1).
43. Laberge S, Crizzle AM. A literature review of psychotropic medications and alcohol as risk factors for falls in community dwelling older adults. Clinical drug investigation. 2019;39(2):117-39.
44. Mukamal KJ, Mittleman MA, Longstreth Jr W, Newman AB, Fried LP, Siscovick DS. Self‐reported alcohol consumption and falls in older adults: cross‐sectional and longitudinal analyses of the cardiovascular health study. Journal of the American geriatrics society. 2004;52(7):1174-9.
45. American Geriatrics Society. Updated AGS Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2019;67(4):674-94.
46. O'Mahony D, O'Sullivan D, Byrne S, O'Connor MN, Ryan C, Gallagher P. STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2. Age and ageing. 2014;44(2):213-8.
47. Fraser L-A, Liu K, Naylor KL, Hwang YJ, Dixon SN, Shariff SZ, et al. Falls and fractures with atypical antipsychotic medication use: a population-based cohort study. JAMA internal medicine. 2015;175(3):450-2.
48. Baranzini F, Diurni M, Ceccon F, Poloni N, Cazzamalli S, Costantini C, et al. Fall-related injuries in a nursing home setting: is polypharmacy a risk factor? BMC health services research. 2009;9(1):1-10.
49. Cox CA, van Jaarsveld HJ, Houterman S, van der Stegen JC, Wasylewicz AT, Grouls RJ, et al. Psychotropic drug prescription and the risk of falls in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2016;17(12):1089-93.