Flexible robots with controllable mechanisms have advantages over common tandem robots in vibration magnitude, residual vibration time, working speed, and efficiency. However, abnormal vibration can sometimes occur during their use, affecting their normal operation. In order to better understand the causes of this abnormal vibration, our work takes a controllable flexible robot as a research object, and uses a combination of Lagrangian and finite element methods to establish its nonlinear elastic dynamics. The effectiveness of the model is verified by comparing the frequency of the numerical calculation and the test. The time-domain diagram, phase diagram, Poincaré map, and maximum Lyapunov exponent of the elastic motion of the robot wrist are studied, and the chaotic phenomena in the system are identified through the phase diagram, Poincaré map, and the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The relationship between the parameters of the robot motion and the maximum Lyapunov exponent is discussed, including trajectory angular speed and radius. The results show that chaotic behavior exists in the controllable flexible robot, and that trajectory angular speed and radius all have an influence on the chaotic motion, which provides a theoretical basis for further research on the control and optimal design of the mechanism.