In total 2759 articles were obtained by searching in databases. Finally23 study selected to evaluate. Methodology of research in 23 Selected articles were descriptive (n=5, 21/7%) and cross-sectional (n=7, 30.4%), Clinical trial(n=3,13.04%), semi-experimental (n=2, 8.6%) and qualitative (n=5, 21.7%) included content analysis (n=2, 8.6%), phenomenology (n=2, 8.6%), systematic review(n=1,4.3%). Topics searched in these articles include: attitude (4,27,16) (n=3,13.04%), experiences of menopause (,17, 18,19) (n=3,13.04%), social support (11,16) (n=2,8.6%), psychological effects (2, ,19,20) (n=3,13.04%), sexual disorder (,21,22) (n=2,8.6%), quality of life (n=6, 26.08%), health promotion (11,27,28, 29) (n=4,17.3%).
3832 persons participated in these researches. In one study menopausal age was 46/8±7/8(3). In another research with27,250 participants (12) menopausal age was 51/8±4/79.
The target population of the eight articles was women aged 40-65, and the others were menopausal women. sampling was Purposive sampling- theoretical - in all cases. All researchers used standard questionnaires except seven. The majority of studies were Surveyed the various rates related to menopause, such as the rate of menopausal complications, the rate of depression, the rate of anxiety, etc. Only 5 of the 23 pieces of research, interventions were performed.
Topics searched in these articles include: attitude (4,27,16) (n=3,13.04%), experiences of menopause (17, 18,19) (n=3,13.04%), social support(11,16)(n=2,8.6%), psychological effects(2, ,19,20)(n=3,13.04%),sexual disorder(,21,22)(n=2,8.6%), quality of life(7,10,12,24,25,28)(n=6, 26.08%),health promotion(11,27,28, 29)(n=4,17.3%,).
Experiences of menopause
According to the studies, most menopausal women have physical experiences, the most common symptom of which is hot flashes (14). hot flashes aggravate by stress and anxiety. As the age of postmenopausal women increases, the severity of physical and psychological symptoms decreases (15,16). Increasing the level of education increases self-confidence and better perception of health, thus improving the health of postmenopausal women (14).
According to the studies, attitudes toward menopause are influenced by the beliefs and culture of society (4,17). When menopause is a sign of aging and loss of youth and loss of sexual attractiveness thus leads to a negative attitude towards menopause (4,1,18). Attitude may include two original attitudes satisfied and non-satisfied (4). In cultures where having children is the most important role for a woman, menopause creates a negative attitude in women (4,19). In some societies and cultures, menopause makes women liberate to have more opportunities to communicate with God and perform religious ceremonies, thus leading to a positive attitude in postmenopausal women (4). positive or negative attitudes toward menopause will affect the severity of menopausal signs and symptoms.
According to researches, social support is the level of love, assistance, and attention, Family members, friends, and other people related to the individual. Tension changed family dependence in postmenopausal women. The most important factor for reducing problems and increasing self-efficacy and health promotion is support by husband and children (4). social and personal variables are impacted on menopausal Complications and health (17,18). Social support increases the ability of individuals to compatibility with stress and reduces physical and psychological symptoms (11). Social and cultural factors are closely related to menopausal symptoms (17).
According to the studies, psychological disorders, depression, and anxiety during menopause can be influential on the quality of life of women (19). psychological support by the husband, the most important person, can reduce anxiety and depression and improve relationships in menopause. (4,11). Marital satisfaction can reduce the psychological effects of menopause(1,19).
anxiety and depression did not correlate Severity of Signs and symptoms in Iran (10), despite, the research of the other countries that have been reported this correlation. Probably these differences caused by differentiation in women’s culture and attitude. Various changes in the life of menopausal women, such as varies in roles and responsibilities lead to an increase in demands and expectations from own and others.
According to the studies, sexual capacity diminishes in menopause (19). Many women experience complications in their sexual life during the transition from menopause (20,19,21,22). Menopause causes a great reduction or termination of sexual activity, but most women consider themselves obligated to satisfy the sexual needs of their husbands (20,19). interventions based on eliminating barriers and enhancing motivational sexuality factors can promote women’s sexual health (20).
Quality of life
According to the studies, menopausal Changes have a significant impact on quality of life (7,23,15,12). Also, Menopausal symptoms affect the quality of life and daily activities (7). A significant negative relation usually is observed between menopausal symptoms and quality of life scores (7). women's Age one of the important factors that affect their quality of life (7,12). quality of life usually decreases with aging (7). Educational interventions during menopause can reduce the complications of menopause and consequently improve the quality of life (4,23,12).
According to researches, A healthy lifestyle promotes menopausal health (11,17,14). Exercise, physical activity, non-smoking and proper nutrition induce menopausal health promotion (17, 23,14), but Aging makes it difficult to do physical activity and other things. Education is one of the important factors in increasing knowledge and improving the performance of postmenopausal women to health promotion (7). Education reminds the effect of proper weight on postmenopausal health to promote health (11).