Background: Factory workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are vulnerable to HIV transmission. Interventions are needed to prevent HIV in this population. We systematically reviewed published literature on the efficacy of various HIV interventions in reducing stigma, risk behaviors and HIV transmission among factory workers.
Methods: A systematic review was performed using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Four databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus and EMBASE) were searched for relevant publications between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2018. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of studies.
Results: Thirteen articles were included, with 2 randomized controlled trials and 11 cohort studies. Five interventions and their combinations were summarized. Educational intervention increased condom use and reduced the use of recreational drugs and alcohol before sex. Community intervention that proactively provide HIV counselling and testing (HCT) services could increase the detection rate of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Lottery intervention increased HCT uptake and decreased HIV public stigma. Education combined with community intervention reduced the proportion of workers with casual sex and enhanced HIV knowledge. Peer education combined with community intervention increased the proportion of workers who were willing to take their partners to HCT. Policy intervention combined with peer education enhanced HIV knowledge, perceived condom accessibility and condom use with regular partners.
Conclusions: Various interventions improved HIV knowledge, decreased HIV stigma and reduced HIV-related risk behaviors among factory workers in LMICs. The combination of multiple interventions tended to achieve better efficacy than a single intervention. Persistent combination interventions are essential to address HIV in this population.