In the present work an outdoor experimental investigation for solar air heater with arc-shaped apex-upstream flow by the use of circular cross section wires as roughness elements has been carried out. The roughness-element have been expressed in non-dimensionalizing geometric parameters as relative roughness-pitch (P/e), relative roughness-height (e/D) and flow attack-angle (α/60), and the range of these parameters varies from 8 to 15, 0.0454, and 0.75 to 1.25, respectively.
For evaluation of performance of the roughened SAH, a novel parameter has been proposed and introduced in the present investigation which is Thermo-Hydraulic Improvement Parameter (THIP). With the use of present roughness geometry, considerably Nusselt number enhancement ratio (NNER) and friction factor enhancement ratio (FFER) have been observed. The maximum NNER and FFER values obtained experimentally is about 2.83 and 1.79 times, respectively. While, the maximum THIP has been obtained 157.49% higher than the smooth SAH. Using the experimental results correlations for the output parameters (Nusselt number and friction factor) as a function of input parameters (flow and roughness) have been developed.