Background Gut microbiota closely communicate in the immune system to maintain a balanced immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. Oral administration of probiotics modulates gut microbiota composition. In the present study, we isolated Lactobacillus rhamnosus HDB1258, which induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10 expression in macrophages, from the feces of breastfeeding infants and examined how HDB1258 could regulate the homeostatic immune response in mice with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation.
Results Oral administration of HDB1258 significantly increased splenic NK cell cytotoxicity, peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis, splenic and colonic TNF-α expression, TNF-α to IL-10 expression ratio, and fecal IgA level in control mice, while Th1 and Treg cell differentiation was not affected in the spleen. However, HDB1258 treatment significantly suppressed peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis and blood prostaglandin E2 level in mice with LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Its treatment increased LPS-suppressed ratios of Treg to Th1 cell population, Foxp3 to T-bet expression, and IL-10 to TNF-α expression. Oral administration of HDB1258 significantly decreased LPS-induced colon shortening, myeloperoxidase activity and NF-κB+/CD11c+ cell population in the colon, while the ratio of IL-10 to TNF-α expression increased. Moreover, HDB1258 treatment shifted gut microbiota composition in mice with and without LPS-induced systemic inflammation: it increased the Cyanobacteria and PAC000664_g (belonging to Bacteroidetes) populations and reduced Deferribacteres and EU622763_s group (belonging to Bacteroidetes) populations. In particular, PAC001066_g and PAC001072_s populations were negatively correlated with the ratio of IL-10 to TNF-α expression in the colon, while the PAC001070_s group population was positively correlated.
Conclusions Oral administered HDB1258 may enhance the immune response by activating innate immunity including to macrophage phagocytosis and NK cell cytotoxicity in the healthy host and suppress systemic inflammation in the host with inflammation by the modulation of gut microbiota and IL-10 to TNF-α expression ratio in immune cells. Keywords: Lactobacillus rhamnosus HDB1258; immunomodulation; immune enhancement; inflammation; gut microbiota.